the continent with him. He became a licentiate of the College of Physicians on 22 Dec. 1819, and was knighted by George IV in 1821, He was given the post of inspector of hospitals in the West Indies in 1883, but his health broke down, and he retired to his native town in 1837, where he died at Huntingdon Lodge on 7 Sept. 1839.
His thesis for the degree of M.D., printed at Edinburgh in 1800, was 'De Paeumstosi,' a term invented by Cullen to express what is now called surgical emphysema, an extravacation of air into tissues, generally due to injury of the lung, and he published a. translation of this Latin essay into English in London in 1807, with some additions, as 'Observations on Emphysema.' It is an almost valueless contribution, but contains a single valuable original observation describing a case in which air was found under the skin all over the body after the rupture into the chest of a phthisical cavity in one lung. His other medical writings contain very little information of value. They are:
- 'Remarks on the Present State of the Lunatic Asylums in Ireland,"' London, 1808.
- 'Observations on the Fifth Report of the Commissioners of Military Enquiry,' 1809.
- 'Observations on the Present State of the Portuguese Army,' 1811; 2nd edit., with additions, 1812.
- Translation of Franck's 'Exposition of the Causes of Disease,' 1815.
- 'Letter to Lord Binning … on the State of Lunatic Asylums and on the Insane Poor in Scotland, 1816.
- 'A General View of the Present State of Lunatics and Lunatic Asylums in Great Britain and Ireland and in some other Kingdoms,' 1828.
- ' A Letter to Lord R. Seymour with reference to the Number of Lunatics and Idiots in England and Wales,' 1829.
- 'A Letter to the Right Hon. the Secretary at War on Sickness and Mortality in the West Indies,' 1839.
He also wrote 'A Memoir of the Campaign of 1815,' 1810; and 'The West Indies; the Nature and Physical History of the Windward and Leeward Colonies,' 1837; and edited 'A General History of the House of Guelph,' 1821; and 'Annalsof the House of Hanover,' 2 vols., 1826.
[Gent. Mag. 1840. pt. i. 63; Munk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 212; Works; Brit. Mus. Cat.]
HALLIDAY, ANDREW (1830–1877), whose full name was Andrew Halliday Duff, essayist and dramatist, born at the Grange, Marnoch, Banffshire, early in 1830, was son of the Rev. William Duff, M.A., minister, of Grange, Banffshire, 1821–44, who died 23 Sept. 1844, aged 53, by his wife Mary Steinson. Andrew was educated at the Marischal College and the university, Aberdeen. On coming to London in 1849 he was for some time connected with the ‘Morning Chronicle,’ the ‘Leader,’ the ‘People's Journal,’ and other periodicals. He soon became known as a writer, and discarded the name of Duff. In 1851 he wrote the article ‘Beggars’ in Henry Mayhew's ‘London Labour and the London Poor.’ He wrote for the ‘Cornhill Magazine,’ and was a constant contributor to ‘All the Year Round.’ To the latter periodical he furnished a series of essays from 1861 onwards, which were afterwards collected into volumes entitled ‘Everyday Papers,’ ‘Sunnyside Papers,’ and ‘Town and Country.’ His article in ‘All the Year Round’ called ‘My Account with Her Majesty’ was reprinted by order of the postmaster-general, and more than half a million copies circulated. As one of the founders and president of the Savage Club in 1857, he naturally took an interest in dramatic writing, and on Boxing night 1858, in conjunction with Frederick Lawrence, produced at the Strand Theatre a burlesque entitled ‘Kenilworth,’ which ran upwards of one hundred nights, and was followed by a travesty of ‘Romeo and Juliet.’ In partnership with William Brough he then wrote the ‘Pretty Horsebreaker,’ the ‘Census,’ the ‘Area Belle,’ and several other farces. In domestic drama he was the author of ‘Daddy Gray,’ the ‘Loving Cup,’ ‘Checkmate,’ and ‘Love's Dream,’ pieces produced with much success by Miss Oliver at the Royalty Theatre. The ‘Great City,’ a piece put on the stage at Drury Lane on 22 April 1867, although not remarkable for the plot or dialogue, hit the public taste and ran 102 nights. The opening piece at the new Vaudeville Theatre, London, 16 April 1870, ‘For Love or Money,’ was written by Halliday. He also was the writer of a series of dramas adapted from the works of well-known authors. These pieces were: ‘Little Em'ly,’ Olympic Theatre, 9 Oct. 1869, which ran two hundred nights; ‘Amy Robsart,’ Drury Lane, 24 Sept. 1870; ‘Nell,’ Olympic Theatre, 19 Nov.; ‘Notre Dame,’ Adelphi Theatre, 10 April 1871; ‘Rebecca,’ Drury Lane, 23 Sept.; ‘Hilda,’ Adelphi, 1 April 1872; ‘The Lady of the Lake,’ Drury Lane, 21 Sept.; and ‘Heart's Delight,’ founded on Dickens's ‘Dombey and Son,’ Globe Theatre, 17 Dec. 1873. He possessed a remarkable talent for bringing out the salient points of a novel, and his adaptations were successful where others failed. Charles Dickens warmly praised the construction of ‘Little Em'ly.’ From 1873 Halliday suffered from softening of the brain. He died at 74 St. Augustine's Road, Camden Town, London, 10 April 1877, and was buried in Highgate