Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 28.djvu/340

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Hutcheson
Hutcheson
334

adds that his influence contributed very powerfully to stimulate the spirit of inquiry in Scotland. Hume, as a young man, corresponded with Hutcheson upon ethical questions, and evidently regarded him as a leading authority in philosophy. Leechman testifies to his vivacity, cheerfulness, and unaffected benevolence. Though quick-tempered he was remarkable for his warmth of feeling and generosity. He helped poor students with money, and admitted them without fees to his lectures. He declined an offer of the chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh in 1745, although the salary was higher and the society superior. He died at Glasgow in 1746 of fever, his previous good health having been interrupted only by occasional gout. By his wife, a Miss Wilson, whom he married soon after his settlement at Dublin, he left one son, Francis Hutcheson the younger [q. v.]

Hutcheson was a close follower of the third Lord Shaftesbury, and had a great influence upon the Scottish philosophers of the 'common-sense' school. His first were directed against the selfish and cynical theories of Hobbes and Mandeville. He adopted and developed the 'moral sense' doctrine as given by Shaftesbury in contrast to the egoistic utilitarianism of his time. The moral sense is his equivalent to Butler's conscience, although his optimism gives a very different character to the resulting doctrine. The chief use of the faculty is to affirm the utilitarian criterion, and he was apparently the first writer to use Bentham's phrase, 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number' (Inquiry concerning- Moral Good and Evil, sec. 3 § 8). He may be thus classed as one of the first exponents of a decided utilitarianism as distinguished from 'egoistic hedonism.' The essence of his teaching is given in his early essays, though more elaborately worked out in the posthumous 'system,' where he developes a cumbrous psychology of 'internal senses.' In metaphysics Hutcheson was, in the main, a follower of Locke; but his ethical writings constitute his chief claim to recollection. They did much to promote a psychological study of the moral faculties, though his analysis is superficial, and he is apt to avoid fundamental difficulties. His theology differs little from the optimistic deism of his day. The fullest account of his teaching is Professor Fowler's 'Shaftesbury and Hutcheson.' See also Bain's 'Mental and Moral Science,' pt.ii. pp.580-93.

Hutcheson's works are: 1. 'An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, in two treatises, in which the principles of the late Earl of Shaftesbury are explained and defended against the author of the "Fable of the Bees" and the "Ideas of Moral Good and Evil" are established, according to the sentiments of the Ancient Moralists, with an attempt to introduce a mathematical calculation on subjects of Morality,' 1725. The second edition in 1726 as 'Inquiry concerning Beauty, Order, Harmony, Design,' and 'Inquiry concerning Moral Good and Evil.' 2. 'Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections,' and 'Illustrations upon the Moral Sense' 1728. 3. 'Thoughts on Laughter' and ' Observations on the Fable of the Bees' (six letters contributed to ' Hibernicus's Letters' a Dublin periodical of 1725-7), with a controversy in the ' London Journal ' of 1728 with Gilbert Burnet, son of the bishop, and collected by Hutcheson in one volume in 1735, were published together by Fowler in 1772. 4. 'De Naturali Hominum Socialitate' (Inaugural Lecture), 1730. 5. 'Considerations on Patronages, addressed to Gentlemen of Scotland' 1735. 6. 'Philosophise Moralis Institutio Compendiaria Ethices et Jurisprudentiae Naturalis Elementa continens, lib. iii. 1742. 7. 'Metaphysicas Synopsis Ontologiam et Pneumatologiam complectens' (anon.), 1742. 8. ' System of Moral Philosophy' in three books, 2 vols. 4to, 1755 (published by his son, and dedicated to Archbishop Synge). 9. 'Logic' not intended for publication, but published by Foulis of Glasgow in 1764.

[Life by Leechman prefixed to Moral Philosophy, 1755; Belfast Monthly Magazine for 1813, i. 110-14; Burton's Hume, i. Ill, 146; Mind, ii. 209-11; Professor Fowler's Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, 1882.]

L. S.

HUTCHESON, FRANCIS, the younger (fl. 1745–1773), also known as Francis Ireland, musical amateur and composer, was the only son of Francis Hutcheson the elder [q. v.], and was born probably about 1722. He graduated B.A. of Trinity College, Dublin, in 1745, M.A. in 1748, M.D. in 1762; and also took the medical degree at Glasgow (Grove). In 1755 Hutcheson published, from manuscript left by his father, the elder Hutcheson's 'System of Moral Philosophy' Hutcheson wrote many excellent part-songs, several of which obtained prizes at the Catch Club. 'As Colin one Evening' won a prize in 1771. Warren's 'Collection of Catches and Glees' vols. ii. iii. iv., and 'Vocal Harmony' contain twenty numbers by Hutcheson under the name of 'Ireland.' Among them are, 'Jolly Bacchus' (prize 1772), 'Where Weeping Yews' (prize in 1773), 'How Sleep the Brave?' 'Return, my Lovely Maid' 'To Love and Wine' 'Great God of Sleep' &c.