Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 34.djvu/246

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second ‘the true notion of life,’ and the third treating ‘of religious perfection.’ It became a most popular devotional work, reaching a tenth edition in 1764. It was also republished in a new edition in 1803–4, and again in 1818. It was much admired by and Dean Stanhope, the translator of ‘Andrewes's Devotions;’ it was strongly recommended by Alexander Knox to his friend Bishop Jebb, who refers to it in the introduction to his edition of Bishop Burnet's ‘Lives, Characters, &c.,’ 1833. It was also one of the books recommended by Susanna Wesley to her son, John Wesley, who, according to Alexander Knox, ‘retained the cordiality of the attachment he conceived for Lucas to the last hour of his life.’

Lucas's other printed works, some of which were published after his death by his son, also Richard Lucas, M.A. of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, are: 1. ‘Practical Christianity, or an Account of the Holiness which the Gospel enjoins,’ 1690; 7th edit. 1746; it was twice translated into French, in 1698 and in 1722. It is strongly recommended by Steele in the ‘Guardian,’ No. 63. ‘Christian Thoughts for every Day of the Month’ is bound up in the same volume with ‘Practical Christianity’ in the edition of 1746. 2. ‘The Plain Man's Guide to Heaven, containing his Duty (1) towards God; (2) towards his Neighbour, with … Prayers, Meditations,’ &c., 1692, 12mo. 3. ‘Twelve Sermons preached on several occasions,’ 2 vols., 1702–9; and 4. ‘Sermons on several occasions and subjects,’ &c., 3 vols., ‘all published from the originals by his son, R. Lucas, M.A.,’ in 1716; 2nd edit. 1722. 5. ‘Influence of Conversation, with the regulation thereof,’ 1707 (often reprinted), a sermon preached at St. Clement Danes to a ‘Religious Society.’ 6. ‘The Duty of Servants,’ 1710, 12mo.

[Lucas's Works, passim; Knox's Remarks on Southey's Life of Wesley; Guardian, 1713, No. 63; Jebb's Introduction to Burnet's Lives; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500–1714; Wood's Athenæ, ed. Bliss, iv. 722.]

J. H. O.

LUCAS, RICHARD COCKLE (1800–1883), sculptor, born at Salisbury on 24 Oct. 1800, was son of Richard and Martha Lucas. At the age of twelve he was apprenticed to an uncle, a cutler at Winchester, and, showing talent in carving knife-handles, subsequently adopted sculpture as a profession. He obtained a good practice and was a large contributor to the Academy exhibitions of busts, medallions, and classical subjects, commencing in 1829. Lucas received commissions for several public statues, including those of Dr. Johnson at Lichfield, Dr. Watts at Southampton, and Sir Richard Colt Hoare in Salisbury Cathedral; but such large works were ill suited to his powers, which are best shown in his numerous medallion portraits executed in marble, wax, and ivory; these have much merit. Lucas was an enthusiastic student of the Elgin marbles, and prepared two models of the Parthenon, one showing it as it appeared after the bombardment by the Venetians in 1687, the other representing it restored in accordance with his own theories as to the original arrangement of the sculptures; the first now stands in the Elgin room at the British Museum. In 1845 he published ‘Remarks on the Parthenon, being the result of studies and inquiries connected with the production of two models of that noble building,’ illustrated with fifteen etchings.

Lucas sent a number of ivory carvings and imitation bronzes, chiefly of classical subjects, to the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1854 he built himself a house at Chilworth, near Romsey, of which he wrote an account entitled ‘The Artist's Dream realised, being a Residence designed and built by R. C. Lucas, Sculptor, 1854; etched and described 1856,’ with seventeen plates. Lucas also produced a large number of etchings, including illustrations to Gray, Goldsmith, and Burns, biblical subjects, and representations of his own sculptured works; a nearly complete series of these, mounted in an album and bound by Lucas himself, with his portrait on the title, is in the print room of the British Museum. Lucas was a man of great originality and conversational powers and a prolific writer in the periodical press; he frequently visited Broadlands, the seat of Lord Palmerston, who much appreciated his society and obtained for him in 1865 a civil-list pension of 150l. A statuette of Lord Palmerston, exhibited in 1859, was Lucas's last contribution to the Academy. In 1870 he published ‘An Essay on Art, especially that of Painting, done by R. C. Lucas, Sculptor, in the Sky-parlour of his Tower of Winds, Chilworth.’ He died of paralysis at Chilworth on 18 May 1883. His son, A. D. Lucas, was a flower-painter, and exhibited at the British Institution and Suffolk Street between 1859 and 1874.

[Hampshire Independent, 20 Jan. 1883; Athenæum, 1883, i. 127; Universal Cat. of Books on Art; Royal Academy Catalogues; 1851 Exhibition Catalogue.]

F. M. O'D.

LUCAS, ROBERT (1748?–1812), divine and poet, born in Northampton about 1748, was educated at the grammar school there, whence he proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated as a ten-year man, B.D. in 1787, D.D. in 1793 (Grad. Cant. p. 302). In 1772 he was serving the