and J. H. Palmer, and was republished in 1838. His last important work, in 1850, was 'An Examination of some prevailing Opinions as to the Pressure of Taxation in this and other Countries' (4th edition, 1864), in which he combated the view that the increase of public expenditure was a proof of heavier taxation of the people, and that English liberty was attained by an amount of taxation which, as compared with that borne by our neighbours, was excessive. He died at Bromley Common, Kent, on 4 Sept. 1882, within a few days of completing his eighty-ninth year, having married in 1830 Sibella (1808-1887), daughter of Henry Stone, of the Bengal civil service, and afterwards a partner in the banking firm of Stone & Martin.
Besides the works already mentioned, Norman was the author of:
- 'Letter to Charles Wood, esq., M.P., on Money, and the Means of economising the Use of it,' 1841.
- 'Remarks on the Incidence of Import Duties, with special reference to the England and Cuba Case contained in "The Budget,"'1860.
- Papers on various subjects, 1869.
- 'The Future of the United States,' a paper read before the British Association at Belfast in August 1874; printed in the 'Journal of the Statistical Society,' March 1875.
- 'A Memoir of the Rev. F. Beadon,' 1879.
- 'Remarks on the Saxon Invasion,' printed in 'Archæologia Cantiana,' vol. xiii. 1880.
He also at one time frequently contributed to the 'Economist.'
[Economist, 9 Sept. 1882, p. 1125, 30 Sept. pp. 1209-11; Times, 15 Sept. 1882, p. 4; Darwin's Life of C. Darwin, 1887, ii. 304; Recollections of a Happy Life—the Autobiography of Marianne North, 1892, ii. 214-15; Lord Tollemache and his Anecdotes in the Fortnightly Review, July 1892, pp. 74-5; information from his son, Philip Norman, esq.]
NORMAN, JOHN (1491?-1553?), Cistercian, was born soon after 1490, and graduated B.A. at Cambridge in 1514. He became abbot of the Cistercian house of Bindon in Dorset some time after 1523, in succession to John Walys. In 1536 Bindon, having a clear income of only 147l. 7s. 9½d. (Gairdner, Calendar of Letters and Papers of Henry VIIIs Reign, x. 1238), was suppressed among the lesser monasteries, but on 16 Nov. of the same year John Norman was formally reinstated abbot there by the patent of refoundation of the house (ib. xi. 1217; the patent is printed in full in Hutchins, Dorset, i. 356-8). Norman appears to have held the abbey of the king for some two years on the tenure of 'perpetual alms,' and then to have finally surrendered it to John Tregonwell, one of the clerks in chancery. The deed of surrender, preserved among the records of the court of augmentations, is dated 14 March 30 Henry VIII, 1539 (Deputy Keeper's Eighth Report, App. ii. p. 10), but the Close Roll gives the date as 10 March (Burnet, Hist. Reform. I. ii. 247, ed. 1865). To John Tregonwell, who had originally petitioned Cromwell for the farm of the abbey in 1536, Norman and his convent (1539) demised the farm of Hamburgh for the term of eighty-one years from 'Michaelmas last' (Gairdner, Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, x. 388), and Norman received a pension of 50l. a year, which he enjoyed until 1553.
[In addition to the authorities mentioned above, see Cooper's Athenæ Cantabr. i. 70; Rymer's Fœdera, xiv. 630; Tanner's Notitia Monastica, p. xl, 3 (ed. 1787); Dugdale's Monasticon, v. 656, ed. 1830; Willis's Mitred Abbeys, ii. 69 ; Dixon's Hist. of Church of England, ii. 114-15.]
NORMAN, JOHN (1622-1669), presbyterian divine, born on 15 Dec. 1622, was son of Abraham Norman of Trusham, Devonshire, and matriculated on 16 March 1637-8 from Exeter College, Oxford, where he was servitor to the rector, Dr. Conant. He graduated B.A. on 21 Oct. 1641, and received presbyterian ordination. In 1647, upon the expulsion of George Wotton, he became presbyterian vicar of Bridgwater, and remained there until ejected by the Act of Uniformity in 1662. He was the bosom friend of Joseph Alleine [q. v.], the ejected vicar of Taunton, whose sister Elizabeth seems to have been his first wife. Norman was probably the 'Pylades' to whom Alleine, under the signature 'Orestes,' wrote a very remarkable 'Letter from Bath' on 12 Oct. 1668, smoothing over some 'jealous passages' which had occurred between the writer and his old friend and 'covenant Pylades' (Life of Alleine, 1822, p. 432, letter xxxvii.) Soon after his ejectment, Norman was brought before Judge Foster for preaching privately to his people, and was sentenced to a fine of 100l. and to imprisonment until the fine was paid. He lay in Ilchester gaol for eighteen months, when Sir Matthew Hale [q. v.], on circuit, compounded the fine at sixpence in the pound. After his release he preached in private. He had good natural abilities, was an acceptable preacher, and was much respected in 'all the western parts of the kingdom' (Calamy). His works include 'Cases of Conscience practically resolved.' London, 1673, 8vo, to which an account of him is prefixed by William Cooper; an ordination sermon, 'Christ's Commission Officer,' London, 1658, 12mo; 'Christ confessed'