ried Malcolm, called Canmore [q. v.], and was by him mother of King Duncan II [q. v.], who was thus Paul's half-brother. Paul and Erlend are said to have been tall, handsome men, and to have resembled their mother. Paul, with his brother's consent, took the entire management of the earldom, which, at the time of their father's death, included not only the Orkneys and the Hebrides, but also eleven earldoms on the mainland of Scotland and a large territory in Ireland, ‘from the Tuscar rocks,’ says the Scald Arnor, ‘right on to Dublin.’ When King Harald Hardradi of Norway had decided, at the instigation of the Saxon Earl Tostig, to oppose King Harold and invade England, he passed the previous winter (1065–6) in the Orkneys with his fleet, in preparing his forces, to which the Orkney earls added all those at their disposal, and prepared to accompany him. The saga-writer relates of the expedition that on leaving Orkney a landing was first made in Cleveland, when Scarborough was taken. The attacking forces next landed in Holderness, where they gained a victory. On Wednesday, 20 Sept., they fought at York against the Earls Waltheof and Morcar [q. v.] On Sunday the town of Stamford Bridge surrendered. Hardradi went on shore to arrange for its government. But while he was on shore he was met by Harold, king of England, at the head of a numerous army. In the battle that followed Harald Hardradi fell. After his death Eystein Orri, his brother-in-law, and the two earls, Paul and Erlend, arrived from the ship and made a stout resistance. Eystein Orri fell, and almost the whole army of the Northmen with him. Earl Paul, having made his submission and given hostages to the English king, was allowed to return to the Orkneys with the young Olaf, Hardradi's son, and what remained of their disordered forces in twenty ships.
Earl Paul sought subsequently to establish the Christian religion in his earldom. He sent to Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, a clerk (Ralph), whom he wished to be consecrated as bishop. Lanfranc, in a letter still extant, ordered Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester, and Peter, bishop of Chester, to go to York and assist the archbishop there in the consecration [see Ralph, fl. 1135].
Paul married a daughter of Hakon Ivarson, and had a son and three daughters. He lived in harmony with his brother Erlend until their respective families grew up, when differences arose. Hakon, Paul's ambitious son, exacted more than his due, which Erlend, his uncle, and Erlend's sons, Magnus (St. Magnus) and Erling—especially the latter—resented. Hakon was induced to leave the islands, and, going to Norway, induced King Magnus Barelegs to undertake an expedition (1098) to subdue the Orkneys and the Hebrides. Hakon sailed with the expedition. The king, on his arrival in Orkney, sent Earls Paul and Erlend prisoners to Norway; and, having placed his young son Sigurd over the islands, continued with Hakon his raid to the Hebrides and the Irish Sea. Earl Paul died at Bergen during the following year (1099). Hakon remained with King Magnus, and became a celebrated warrior. On the death of King Magnus (1103), his son, the young Sigurd, left the Orkneys to succeed his father on the throne of Norway. Hakon succeeded to the Orkney earldom, which he held for a time conjointly with his first cousin Magnus (St. Magnus); but, growing again jealous of him, he killed Magnus in 1115. To Hakon succeeded his sons Harald and Paul the Silent.Paul the Silent, Earl of Orkney (fl. 1130), ruled over the islands with his half-brother Harald. On the death of Harald, Paul ruled for a time alone. He was somewhat taciturn, spoke little at the Thing-meetings, and gave others a large share of the government. He was modest, gentle to the people, and liberal with his money among his friends. He was not warlike. He had, however, to defend his possessions against the rival claims of Kali Kolson, nephew to Earl Magnus the Saint, Erlend's son. Kali assumed the name of Rognvald (St. Rognvald), and received from King Sigurd of Norway a grant of that part of the islands which had belonged to his uncle. Paul refused to recognise his claims, and Rognvald prepared to invade the Orkneys. Assistance was promised Rognvald from the Hebrides and the north of Scotland, in the interest of Maddad, earl of Athole, who was married to Margaret, sister of Earl Paul the Silent, and who wished to secure the earldom for his young son Harald. Rognvald's first descent on the islands failed. His forces were dispersed and his ships captured by Paul. Previous to a second attempt Rognvald made a vow, says the saga-writer, that if he succeeded he would build and endow a church at Kirkwall in the Orkneys, where the relics of his uncle Magnus the Saint might be preserved, and whither the bishop's see might be transferred. His second attempt was successful, and he performed his vow. The church he built, the cathedral of St. Magnus, yet remains intact, one of the finest minsters in the north of Europe. The islands were divided between Paul and Rognvald; but about the same