Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 56.djvu/360

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stay at these places he was twice solicited by a deputation from the York chapter to consecrate Thurstan; and, though he had promised Henry that he would not do so, he nevertheless consecrated Thurstan at Rheims on Sunday, 20 Oct., the day before the council was to open, many French bishops assisting at the rite, though the archbishop of Lyons refused to obey the pope's order that he should be present; for he held that a wrong was done to the see of Canterbury. John, the archdeacon of Canterbury, who was with the pope, loudly protested in the presence of the assembled bishops against the consecration (ib. col. 504; Hugh). The English and Norman bishops, who arrived the next day, bitterly reproached Thurstan for his deceitful conduct, would not hold any intercourse with him, and in the king's name forbad him to enter any of Henry's dominions. Henry declared that he should never set foot in England until he had made the profession. On 1 Nov. he received the pall from the pope, who bade him keep the grant secret for the present.

In order to pave the way for a reconciliation with Henry, Thurstan busied himself in attempts to arrange a peace between the kings of England and France. At a meeting between Henry and the pope at Gisors Calixtus begged the king to allow Thurstan to occupy his see in peace; but Henry would not yield, and on his return to England disseised the archbishop of his estates. Thurstan remained with the pope. He was treated with great consideration by the cardinals and others of the papal court, took part in deliberations and judicial proceedings as though he had been a cardinal, and assisted the pope in the dedications of altars and churches. While he was with the pope at Gap, on Ash Wednesday 1120, it was decided that the church of York should be freed from the profession, and a bull was issued to that effect. At Thurstan's request the pope gave him some relics for his church and some holy oil, and granted him leave to use the pall while he was in exile. Thurstan then took his leave, being escorted on the first stage of his journey by a number of cardinals and bishops. He visited Adela, countess of Blois, and her son Theobald, and was hospitably entertained at Rheims by Ralph (d. 1124), the archbishop of that see. At Soissons he met the legate Conon, and, after consulting with him, judged it well to abstain from attending the court which Louis was about to hold at Senlis, and again visited the Countess of Blois, celebrating mass with his pall on Easter day at Coulommiers, and going with the countess to Marcigny, where she took the veil. Meanwhile the pope pressed Henry on Thurstan's behalf, and an interview took place between the king and the legate Conon at Château Landon, near Nemours, on the Sunday after Ascension day, Thurstan, at Henry's request, being near at hand. The king was finding the archbishop extremely useful to him in negotiating with France, and was therefore inclined in his favour (Symeon, Historia Regum, c. 199). During the discussion Conon brought Thurstan to Henry, who reinvested him with the archbishopric, and gave him leave to enter Normandy on his promising that he would keep out of England until Michaelmas, when the king proposed to come to a final settlement. At Michaelmas Thurstan could not be spared to return to England, as he was engaged on the king's business. He attended the council that the legate held at Beauvais in October, and at its close Henry, in an interview with Conon at Gisors, promised that he would obey the pope's wishes with respect to him, saying that he would rather have lost five hundred marks than have been without him. Thurstan hoped to have crossed with the king in November; but Henry bade him stay until after Christmas, that he might take advice with his council (ib.), and he therefore visited Chartres. At Christmas Henry summoned Archbishop Ralph and the bishops to a council, and caused to be read to them a letter from Calixtus directed to him and Ralph, in which the pope threatened to lay England under an interdict unless Thurstan was restored to his church without making profession, and appears also to have laid the matter before the magnates of the kingdom generally. It was unanimously decided that he should be recalled, though, it is said, on the condition that he was to celebrate no divine office outside his diocese until he had satisfied the church of Canterbury (ib.; Hugh; Eadmer, cols. 515–516). The messenger bearing his recall found him at Rouen. He crossed on 30 Jan., went to the king and queen at Windsor, was well received, and shortly afterwards proceeded to York, where he was met by a great procession of men of all orders, lay and clerical, and was welcomed with much rejoicing.

Thurstan celebrated his return by remitting certain fees paid by the churches of his diocese for the consecrated chrism, and strictly forbade his clergy to demand payment for burials, extreme unction, and baptism. At Michaelmas Henry called on him to make profession to Ralph personally, but on his producing the privilege granted by Calixtus the matter was dropped. Thurstan was himself vainly demanding a profession from John,