Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 62.djvu/209

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.


tion was sent to New England, and a thousand swords by way of arming the colonists against the Dutch (ib. p. 386). In 1653 he issued his last tract, ‘A Platform of Church Discipline in New England’ (London, 4to). In June 1654 he was one of the commissioners appointed to determine the value of the English ships seized and destroyed by the king of Denmark, for which restitution was to be made, according to the treaty of peace made with the Protector on 5 April. When Cromwell despatched the naval expedition against the Spanish in the West Indies under Penn and Venables, he appointed Winslow as chief of the three civil commissioners, Daniel Searle and Gregory Butler being the other two, who were to accompany and advise with the commanders. He was allowed a fixed salary of 1,000l. per annum, 500l. being paid him in advance (ib. p. 419). During the passage of the fleet from Hispaniola, whence it was repulsed, to Jamaica, which it captured, Winslow died of a fever, aggravated by the intense heat, on 8 May 1655 (O.S.). He was buried at sea with a salute of forty-two guns. The following pious doggerel was inscribed to his memory, and perpetuated in Morton's ‘Memorial’ (1669):

    The eighth of May, west from Spaniola's shore,
    God took from us our grand commissioner,
    Winslow by name; a man in chiefest trust
    Whose life was sweet and conversation just.

By his second wife, Susannah, he had, with other issue, an only son, Josiah Winslow (1629–1680), who became a distinguished man in the colony; was a magistrate, governor, and in 1675 commander of the New England forces in the Indian war (see Cal. State Papers, Colonial, Addenda). Edward Winslow's widow survived until 1680, when she was buried in the Winslow burying-ground at Marshfield.

The first colony owed much to Winslow, whose popularity as an administrator was strikingly attested by an appeal from several Barbadeans that he should be appointed their governor in place of Lord Willoughby. His birth and breeding gave him an advantage over most of his fellow emigrants, and Winthrop and the New England council did wisely in deputing him upon a mission to the English parliament, among the members of which he moved as one of themselves. Cromwell recognised his value and his integrity and kept him constantly employed in responsible posts.

Winslow's dark features and dignified figure are well portrayed in an oil painting executed in England in 1651, when he was fifty-six years old. The original, which is the only authentic likeness of any of the ‘Mayflower pilgrims,’ is now the property of a descendant, Isaac Winslow (cf. Mass. Coll. vii. 286, and Proc. x. 36). Engravings, not distinguished by uniformity as regards likeness, have been executed for Young's ‘Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers,’ Moore's ‘American Governors,’ Bartlett's ‘Pilgrim Fathers,’ Morton's ‘Memorial’ (Boston, 1855), Winsor's ‘History of America’ (iii. 277), and Appleton's ‘Cyclopædia.’ Winslow's chair is engraved for Young's ‘Chronicles’ (p. 238); this and other relics are preserved in Pilgrim Hall at (New) Plymouth. Winslow's estate of Marshfield subsequently passed into the possession of Daniel Webster.

In addition to the works mentioned, Winslow was joint author with Governor William Bradford (1590–1657) [q. v.] of the ‘Diary of Occurrences’ or chronicle of the Cape Cod colony (November 1620 to December 1621), which was printed in London as ‘Journal of the Beginning and Proceeding of the English Plantations settled at Plymouth in New England,’ with a preface signed by G. Mourt. Mourt's ‘Relation,’ as it is often described, was abridged by Purchas in his ‘Pilgrimes,’ and reproduced in the abbreviated form in ‘I Massachusetts Historical Collections,’ viii. 203–9; the parts of the original omitted in the abridgement were published in ‘II Massachusetts Historical Collections,’ ix. 26–74; the whole was printed in Young's ‘Chronicles,’ and separately, with notes by W. T. Harris, New York, 1852. Winslow's ‘Good Newes’ (mentioned above) was in continuation of Mourt's ‘Relation.’ Copies of all Winslow's tracts are in the British Museum Library.

[Full biographies of Winslow are given in Belknap's American Biographies (1794–8), in J. B. Moore's Memoirs of American Governors (New York, 1846, i. 93–138), and in D. P. Holton's Winslow Memorial (New York, 1877, vol. i. Introd.). Numerous details as to the family are to be found in the New England Hist. and Geneal. Register, 1850, 1863, 1867, 1870, 1872, 1877, and 1878, and in Savage's Genealog. Dict. of First Settlers in New England.]

T. S.

WINSLOW, FORBES BENIGNUS (1810–1874), physician, ninth son of Thomas Winslow, a captain in the 47th regiment of foot, and his wife, Mary Forbes, was born at Pentonville in August 1810. His father was a direct descendant of Edward Winslow [q. v.] The family lost their American property in the war of independence and came to England. After education at University College, London, and at the Middlesex Hospital, where he was a pupil of Sir Charles Bell