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tradition embodied in the work of Velazquez, Zurbaran, El Greco, and Goya. His own country was slow in acknowledging the young artist whose strong, decorative rugged style was the very negation of the aims of such well-known modern Spanish artists as Fortuny, Madrazo, and Benlliure. It was first in Paris, and then in Brussels and other continental art centres, that Zuloaga was hailed by the reformers as the regenerator of Spanish national art and as the leader of a school. He is now represented in almost every great continental gallery. Two of his canvases are at the Luxembourg, one at the Brussels Museum (“Avant la Corrida”), and one (“The Poet Don Miguel”) at the Vienna Gallery. The Pau Museum owns an interesting portrait of a lady, the Barcelona Municipal Museum the important group “Amies,” the Venice Gallery, “Madame Louise”, the Berlin Gallery, “The Topers.” Other examples are in the Budapest, Stuttgart, Ghent and Posen galleries and in many important private collections.
A fully illustrated account of the artist and his work, bv M. Utrillo, was published in a special number of Forma (Barcelona, 1907).
Zululand, a country of south east Africa, forming the N.E. part of the province of Natal in the Union of South Africa. The “Province of Zululand,” as it was officially styled from 1898 to 1910, lies between 26° 50′ and 29° 15′ S. and 30° 40′ and 33° E, and has an area of 10,450 sq. m. It includes in the north the country of the Ama Tonga, Zaambanland, and other small territories not part of the former Zulu kingdom and stretches north from the lower Tugela to the southern frontier of Portuguese East Africa. Bounded S.E. by the Indian Ocean it has a coast line of 210 m. North and north west it is bounded by the Utrecht and Vryheid districts of Natal and by Swaziland. Its greatest length in a direct line is 185 m., its greatest breadth 105 m. (For map see South Africa.)
Physical Features. — Zululand is part of the region of hills and plateaus which descend seaward from the Drakensberg — the great mountain chain which buttresses the vast tableland of inner South Africa. The coast, which curves to the N.E., is marked by a line of sandhills covered with thick bush and rising in places to a height of 500 ft. There are occasional outcrops of rock and low perpendicular cliffs. Behind the sandhills is a low-lying plain in which are a number of shallow lagoons. Of these St Lucia Lake and Kosi Lake are of considerable size and communicate with the sea by estuaries. St Lucia, the larger of the two, is some 35 m. long by 10 m. broad with a depth of 9 to 10 ft. It runs parallel to the ocean, from which it is separated by sandhills. The opening to the sea, St Lucia river is at the south end. Kosi Lake lies further north, in Tongaland. It is not more than half the size of St Lucia and its opening to the sea is northward. Between Kosi and St Lucia lakes lies Lake Sibayi, close to the coast but not communicating with the sea.. The coast plain extends inland from 5 to 30 m., increasing in width northward, the whole of Tongaland being low-lying. The rest of the country is occupied by ranges of hills and plateaus 2000 to 4000 ft. above sea level. Behind Eshowe, in the south, are the Entumeni Hills (3000 ftm), beyond which stretch the Nkandhla uplands (rising to 4500 ft.), densely wooded in parts and abounding in flat-topped hills with precipitous sides. Westward of the uplands are the Kyudeni Hills (5000 ft.), also densely wooded, situated near the junction of the Buffalo and Tugela rivers. Further north, along the S.W. frontier, are Isandhlwana and the Nqutu hills. To the N.W. the Lebombo Mts. (1800 to 2000 ft.) which separate the coast plains from the interior, mark the frontier between Swaziland and Zululand. On their eastern (Zululand) side the slope of the Lebombo mountains is gentle, but on the west they fall abruptly to the plain.
The geological structure of the country is comparatively simple, consisting in the main of plateaus formed of sedimentary rocks, resting on a platform of granitic and metamorphic rocks (see Natal: Geology).
The country is well watered. Rising in the high tablelands or on the slopes of the Drakensberg or Lebombo mountains the rivers in their upper courses have a great slope and a high velocity. In the coast plains they become deep and sluggish. Their mouths are blocked by sand bars, which in the dry season check their flow and produce the lagoons and marshes which characterize the coast. After the rains the rivers usually clear the bars for a time. The following are the chief rivers in part or in whole travering the country. — The Pongola, in its lower course, flows through Tongaland peircing the Lebombo Mts. through a deep, narrow gorge with precipitous sides. Its point of confluence with the Maputa (which empties into Delagoa Bay) marks the parallel along which the frontier between Zululand and Portuguese East Africa is drawn. The Umgavuma which rises in Swaziland and also pierces the Lebombo, joins the Pongola about ten miles above its confluence with the Maputa. The Umkuzi which rises in the Vryheid district of Natal forces its way through the Lebombo Mts. at their southern end and flows into the northern end of St Lucia Lake. The Umfolosi, with two main branches the Black and White Umfolosi, drains the central part of the country and reaches the ocean at St Lucia Bay. In the bed of the White Umfolosi are dangerous quicksands. Farther south the Umhlatuzi empties into a lagoon which communicates with the ocean by Richards Bay. For a considerable part of their course the Blood, Buffalo and Tugela rivers form the S.W. frontier of Zululand (see Tugela). There are numerous other rivers — every valley has its stream for the most part unnavigable.
Climate. — The climate of the coast belt is semi-tropical and malaria is prevalent, that of the highlands temperate. The summer is the rainy season, but in the higher country snow and sleet are not uncommon in the winter months of May, June and July. On the coast about 40 in. of rain fall in the summer months and about 7 in. in the winter months. A fresh S.E. wind is fairly constant in the inland regions during the middle of the day. A hot wind from the N.W. is occasionally experienced in the highlands.
Flora and Fauna. — The coast plain (in large part), the river valleys, and the eastern sides of the lower hills are covered with mimosa and other thorn trees. This is generally known as thornbush and has little undergrowth. “Coast forests” grow in small patches along the lower courses of the rivers, at their mouths, and on the sandhills along the coast. They contain stunted timber trees, palms, mangroves and other tropical and sub-tropical plants and have an almost impenetrable undergrowth. The largest coast forest is that of Dukuduku, some 9 m. by 15 m. in extent, adjacent to St Lucia Bay. The upland regions are those of high timber forests, the trees including the yellow-wood and iron-wood. The most noteworthy timber forests are those of Nkandhla and Kyudeni and that near Ehshowe. Large areas of the plateau are covered with grass and occasional thorn trees. Orchids are among the common flowers.
The fauna includes the lion and elephant, found in the neighbourhood of the Portuguese frontier (the lion was also found as late as 1895 in the Ndwandwe district), the white and the black rhinoceros, the leopard, panther, jackal, spotted hyena, aard-wolf, buffalo, zebra, gnu, impala, inyala, oribi, hartebeeste, kudu, springbok, waterbuck, eland, roan antelope, duiker, &c., hares and rabbits. Hippopotami are found on the coast, and alligators are common in the rivers and lagoons of the low country. Venomous snakes abound. The great kori bustard, the koorhan, turkey buzzards (known as insingisi), wild duck, and paauw are among the game birds. The ostrich and secretary bird are also found. Of domestic animals the Zulus possess a dwarf breed of smooth-skinned humped cattle. Locusts are an occasional pest.
Inhabitants. — The population in 1904 was estimated at 230,000. Of these only 5635 lived outside the area devoted to native locations. The white population numbered 1693. The vast majority of the natives are Zulu (see Kaffirs), but there is a settlement of some 2000 Basutos in the Nqutu district. After the establishment of the Zulu military ascendancy early in the 19th century various Zulu hordes successively invaded and overran a great part of east-central Africa, as far as and even beyond the Lake Nyasa district. Throughout these regions they are variously known as Ma Zitu, Ma Ravi, Wa-Ngoni (Angoni), Matabele (Ama Ndebeli), Ma Viti, and Aba-Zanzi. Such was the terror insprred by these fierce warriors that many of the tribes, such as the Wa Nindi of Mozambique, adopted the name of their conquerors or oppressors. Hence the impression that the true Zulu are far more numerous north of the Limpopo than has ever been the case. In most places they have become extinct or absorbed in the surrounding populations owing to their habit of incorporating prisoners in the tribe. But they still hold their ground as the ruling element in the region between the Limpopo and the middle Zambezi, which from them takes the name of Matabeleland. The circumstances and history of the two chief migrations of Zulu peoples northward are well known, the Matabele were led by Mosilikatze (Umsiligazi), and the Angoni by Sungandaba, both chiefs of Chaka who revolted from him in the early 19th century.
The Zulu possess an elaborate system of laws regulating the inheritance of personal property (which consists chiefly of cattle), the complexity arising from the practice of polygamy and the exchange of cattle made upon marriage. The giving of cattle in the latter case is generally referred to as a barter and sale of the bride from which indeed it is not easily distinguishable. But it is regarded in a different light by the natives. The kraal is