Equitation is divided into several branches: that of the promenade, that of the army, of the races, of polo, of the circus. The equestrian art consists in the practice of these different sorts of equitation, in teaching the principles accepted for their practice, and in training the horse for these different uses. The present work, however, will treat only of the equitation of the promenade.
This portion of the general art has, in its turn, three subdivisions. These are:
The usual or instinctive or "lateral" equitation.
The rational equitation, l'équitation raisonnée, based upon reasoned principles worked out by the masters of the art.
The scientific equitation, l'équitation savante, based upon the scientific study of animal motions, and involving a scientific system of gymnastics for the physical development of the horse, designed to adapt the animal to the controlled use to which it is put.
It is evident that, from antiquity to our own epoch, the usual or instinctive equitation has been