Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/135

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orthographically retained), for הָֽאֲז׳ Jer 404 (cf. בַּֽאז׳ verse 1); הָֽסוּרִים Ec 414 for הָֽאֲס׳; הָֽרַמִּים 2 Ch 225 for הָֽאֲר׳(cf. 2 K 828).

 [35e]  (2) In the case of the other gutturals either the virtual strengthening takes place (§22c)—especially with the stronger sounds ח and ה, less often with ע—or the strengthening is wholly omitted. In the former case, the Pathaḥ of the article remains, because the syllable is still regarded as closed; in the second case, the Pathaḥ is either modified to Seghôl or fully lengthened to Qameṣ. That is to say:—

 [35fA. When the guttural has any other vowel than ā (־ָ) or ŏ (־ֳ), then

(1) before the stronger sounds ה and ה the article regularly remains הַ; e.g. הַהוּא that, הַחֹ֫דֶשׁ the month, הַחַ֫יִל the force, הַחָכְמָה the wisdom. Before ח, ā occurs only in הָחַי Gn 619 [not elsewhere], הָֽחֲרִיטִים Is 322, הָֽחַמָּנִים Is 178 [not elsewhere]; before ה, always in הָהֵ֫מָּה, הָהֵם.

 [35g]  (2) before ע the Pathaḥ is generally lengthened to Qameṣ, e.g. הָעַ֫יִן the eye, הָעִיר the city, הָעֶ֫בֶד the servant, plur. הָֽעֲבָדִים; לָֽעֲגָלִים 1 K 1232; also in Gn 1017 הָֽעַרְקִי is the better reading. Exceptions are כַּֽעוֹפֶ֫רֶת Ex 1510, הַֽעִוְרִים 2 S 56,8, Is 4218, כַּעֶ֫בֶד Is 242, הַעֹֽרְכִים Is 6511, בַּע֫שֶׁק Ez 227, הַעֹֽזְבִים Pr 213 and הַעֹזֶ֫בֶת Pr 217, לַֽעֵינַיִם 1 S 167, Ec 117; but לָֽעֵינ׳ Gn 36, Pr 1026. Cf. Baer on Is 4218.

 [35hB. When the guttural has ā (־ָ) then

(1) immediately before a tone-bearing הָ or עָ the article is always הָ, otherwise it is הֶ; e.g. הָעָם the people, הָהָר the mountain, הָעָ֑יִן (in pause) the eye, הָהָ֫רָה towards the mountain; but (according to §22c) הֶֽהָרִ֫ים the mountains, הֶֽעָוֹן the iniquity.

 [35i]  (2) before חָ the article is invariably הֶ without regard to the tone; e.g. הֶֽחָכָם the wise man, הֶחָ֫ג the festival.

 [35kC. When the guttural has הֳ the article is הֶ before חֳ e.g. הֶֽחֳדָשִׁים the months; בֶּֽחֳרָבוֹת in the waste places (without the article בָּֽחֳ׳ bŏḥorābhôth) Ez 3327, הֶֽחֳרֵבוֹת Ez 3635,38, cf. 2 Ch 274; but הָ before עֳ, as הָֽעֳמָרִים the sheaves Ru 215.

The gender and number of the noun have no influence on the form of the article.

 [35l]  Rem. 1. The original form of the Hebrew (and the Phoenician) article הַ is generally considered to have been הַל, the ל of which (owing to the proclitic nature of the article) has been invariably assimilated to the following consonant, as in יִקַּח from yilqaḥ, §19d. This view was supported by the form of the Arabic article אַל (pronounced hal by some modern Beduin), the ל of which is also assimilated at least before all letters like s and t and before l, n, and r, e.g. ʾal-Qurʾân but ʾas-sá̆nă (Beduin has-sana)=Hebr. הַשָּׁנָה the year.