the tone from the final syllable, in order by that means to express the urgency of the command in the very first syllable. This tendency has, in certain forms, even caused a material shortening of the termination of the word, so that the expression of the command appears to be concentrated on a single syllable. In other cases, however, the jussive is simply marked by a shortening of the vowel of the second syllable, without its losing the tone, and very frequently (see above, b) the nature of the form does not admit of any alteration. It is not impossible, however, that even in such cases the jussive in the living language was distinguished from the indicative by a change in the place of the tone.
[48g] In the strong verb the jussive differs in form from the indicative only in Hiphʿîl (juss. יַקְטֵל, ind. יַקְטִיל), and similarly in the weak verb, wherever the imperfect indicative has î in the second syllable, e.g. from יָשַׁב impf. Hiph. יוֹשִׁיב, juss. יוֹשֵׁב; from מוּת, יָמִית and יָמֵת; also in Qal of the verbs ע״וּ and ע״י, as יָמֹת, ind. יָמוּת; יָגֵל, ind. יָגִיל; in all conjugations of verbs ל״ה, so that the rejection (apocope) of the ending ־ֶה in Qal and Hiph. gives rise to monosyllabic forms, with or without a helping vowel under the second radical, e.g. Qal ind. יִגְלֶה, juss. יִ֫גֶל; Hiph. ind. יַגְלֶה, juss. יֶ֫גֶל; and in the Piʿēl יְצַו from the indic. יְצַוֶּה (called apocopated imperfects). But almost all the plural forms of the jussive coincide with those of the indicative, except that the jussive excludes the fuller ending וּן. Neither do the forms of the 2nd sing. fem., as תַּקְטִ֫ילִי, תָּמ֫וּתִי, תִּגְלִי, &c., admit of any change in the jussive, nor any forms, whether singular or plural, to which suffixes are attached, e.g. תְּמִיתֵ֫נִי as ind. Jer 3815, as jussive Jer 418.
[48h] The meaning of the jussive is similar to that of the cohortative, except that in the jussive the command or wish is limited almost exclusively to the and or 3rd pers. On special uses of the jussive, e.g. in hypothetical sentences (even in the 1st pers.), see §109h.
[48i] 5. The imperative, in accordance with its other points of connexion with the imperfect in form and meaning, admits of a similar lengthening (by ־ָה, Arab. imper. energicus, with the ending -ănnă or -ăn, in pause -ā) and shortening. Thus in Qal of the strong verb, the lengthened form of שְׁמֹר guard is שָׁמְרָה (šŏmerâ, cf. קִטְלִי qîṭelî, §46d); עֲזֹב, עָזְבָה Jer 4911; שְׁכַב, שִׁכְבָה lie down; שְׁמַע, שִׁמְעָה hear, in lesser pause שְׁמָ֫עָה
- Only in 1st plur. do we find a few shortened forms, as נַשְׁאֵר 1 S 1436, parallel with cohortatives; and נֵ֫רֶא Is 4123 Keth.
- On the reading שָֽׁמְרָה (i.e. šāmera, according to the Jewish grammarians), required by the Masora in ψ 862, 119167 (cf. also Is 3814, and שָֽׁמְרֵנִי ψ 161), see §9v; on מלוכה, Ju 98 Keth., see §46e.