Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/184
[59g] 3. The 3rd sing. fem. קְטָלַת (=קָֽטְלָה) has the twofold peculiarity that (a) the ending ath always takes the tone, and consequently is joined to those suffixes which form a syllable of themselves (נִי, ךָ, הוּ, הָ, נוּ), without a connecting vowel, contrary to the general rule, §58f; (b) before the other suffixes the connecting vowel is indeed employed, but the tone is drawn back to the penultima, so that they are pronounced with shortened vowels, viz. ־֫ ־ֶךְ, ־֫ ־ַם, e.g. אֲהֵבָ֫תֶךְ she loves thee, Ru 415, cf. Is 4710; גְּנָבָ֫תַם she has stolen them, Gn 3132; שְׂרָפָּ֫תַם it burns them, Is 4714, Jos 26, Ho 214, ψ 487. For ־ַ֫ תְנִי, ־ַ֫ תְךָ &c., in pause ־ָֽ תְנִי is found, Jer 821, ψ 6910, and ־ָֽ תְךָ Ct 85; and also without the pause for the sake of the assonance חִבְּלָֽתְךָ, she was in travail with thee, ibid. The form קְטָלַ֫תּוּ (e.g. Ru 415) has arisen, through the loss of the ה and the consequent sharpening of the ת (as in ־ֶ֫ נּוּ and ־ֶ֫ נָּה for ־ֶ֫ נְהוּ and ־ֶ֫ נְהָ, cf. §58i), from the form קְטָלַ֫תְהוּ, which is also found even in pause (אֲהֵבַֽתְהוּ 1 S 1828; elsewhere it takes in pause the form סְמָכָֽתְהוּ Is 5916); so קְטָלַ֫תָּה from קֵטָלַ֫תְהָ; cf. 1 S 16, Is 3417, Jer 4924, Ru 36; in pause Ez 1415, always, on the authority of Qimḥi, without Mappîq in the ה, which is consequently always a more vowel-letter.
[59h] 4. In the 2nd sing. masc. the form קְטַלְתָּ is mostly used, and the suffixes have, therefore, no connecting vowel, e.g. זְנַחְתָּ֫נוּ פְרַצְתָּ֑נוּ thou hast cast us off, thou hast broken us down, ψ 603; but with the suff. of the 1st sing. the form קְטַלְתַּ֫נִי is used, e.g. חֲקַרְתַּ֫נִי ψ 1391; in pause, however, with Qameṣ, e.g. עֲזַבְתָּ֑נִי ψ 222; Ju 115 (with Zaqeph qaṭon); but cf. also צְרַפְתָּ֫נִי ψ 173 with Merekha.—In the 2nd sing. fem. ־תִּי— is also written defectively, רִמִּיתִ֫נִי 1 S 1917, Ju 1135, Jer 1510, Ct 49. Occasionally the suffix is appended to the ordinary form ־ְתּ, viz. הִשְׁבַּעְתָּ֫נוּ thou (fem.) dost adjure us, Ct 59, Jos 217,20; cf. Jer 227, and, quite abnormally, with Ṣere הוֹרַדְתֵּ֫נוּ thou (fem.) didst let us down, Jos 218, where הוֹרַדְתִּ֫נוּ would be expected. In Is 811 וְיִסְּרֵ֫נִי is probably intended as an imperfect.
[59i] 5. In verbs middle ē, the ē remains even before suffixes (see above, c), e.g. אֲהֵֽבְךָ֫ Dt 1516, אֲהֵבַ֫תְהוּ 1 S 1828, cf. 1822; יְרֵא֫וּהוּ Jb 3724. From a verb middle ō there occurs יְכָלְתִּיו I have prevailed against him, ψ 135, from יָכֹל with ŏ instead of ō in a syllable which has lost the tone (§44e).
[60a] In those forms of the imperfect Qal, which have no afformatives, the vowel ō of the second syllable mostly becomes ־ְ (simple Šewâ mobile), sometimes ־ֳ; thus in the principal pause, Nu 3520, Is 273, 622, Jer 3133, Ez 356, Ho 1010; before the principal pause, ψ 11933; before a secondary pause, Ez 1723; even before a conjunctive accent, Jos 235. Before ־ְךָ,