Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/189

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§63. Verbs First Guttural, e.g. עָמַד to stand.

 [63a]  In this class the deviations from the ordinary strong verb may be referred to the following cases:—

1. Instead of a simple Šewâ mobile, the initial guttural takes a compound Še (Ḥaṭeph, §10f, §22l). Thus the infinitives עֲמֹד, אֱכֹל to eat, and the perfects, 2nd plur. masc. עֲמַדְתֶּם, חֲפַצְתֶּם from חָפֵץ to be inclined, correspond to the forms קְטֹל and קְטַלְתֶּם; also אֲכָלוֹ to קְטָלוֹ, and so always with initial ־ֲ before a suffix for an original ă, according to §22o.

 [63b2. When a preformative is placed before an initial guttural, either the two may form a closed syllable, or the vowel of the preformative is repeated as a Ḥaṭeph under the guttural. If the vowel of the preformative was originally a, two methods of formation may again be distinguished, according as this a remains or passes into Seghôl.

 [63c]  Examples: (a) of firmly closed syllables after the original vowel of the preformative (always with ō in the second syllable, except וַתַּעְגַּב Ez 235, תַּעְדֶה &c. from עָדָה to adorn oneself, and יַעְטֶה; but cf. e): יַחְמֹד, יַחְמֹל, יַהְשֹׁב, יַהְשֹׁךְ, יַעְקֹב Jer 93 (probably to distinguish it from the name יַֽעֲקֹב, just as in Jer 1019, &c., the participle fem. Niphʿal of חָלָה is נַחְלָה to distinguish it from נַֽחֲלָה), &c., and so generally in the imperfect Qal of stems beginning with ח, although sometimes parallel forms exist, which repeat the ă as a Ḥaṭeph, e.g. יַֽחֲשֹׁב, &c. The same form appears also in the imperfect Hiphʿîl יַחְסִיר, &c. Very rarely the original ă is retained in a closed syllable under the preformative נ‍ of the perfect Niphʿal: נַחְבֵּ֫אתָ Gn 3127; cf. 1 S 192, Jos 216; also the infinitive absolute נַחְתּוֹם Est 88, נַעְתּוֹר 1 Ch 520, and the participle fem. נַחְלָה (see above), plur. נַעְתָּרוֹת Pr 276. In these forms the original ă is commonly kept under the preformative and is followed by Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ; thus in the perfect of some verbs ל״ה, e.g. נַֽעֲשָׂה, &c.; in the infinitive absolute, נַֽהֲפוֹךְ Est 91; in the participle נַֽעֲרָץ, ψ 898, &c.

 [63d]  (b) Of the corresponding Ḥaṭeph after the original vowel: יַֽחֲבשׁ (but יֶחְבָּֽשׁ Jb 518 in pause), יֽחֲלֹם, יַֽעֲמֹד, יַֽהֲרֹס, and so almost always with ע and often with ה in the imperfects of Qal and Hiphʿîl; in Hophʿal, הָֽעֳמַד, יָֽעֳמַד; but cf. also הָחְבָּ֑אוּ Is 4222, הָחְתֵּל Ez 164.

 [63e]  The ă of the preformative before a guttural almost always (§22i, cf. §27p) becomes Seghôl (cf., however, q). This Seghôl again appears sometimes

(c) in a closed syllable, e.g. יֶחְבַּשׁ, יֶחְסַד, יֶעְתַּד, יֶאְשַׁם, always with ă in the second syllable, corresponding to the imperfects of verbs ע״ע,