Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/205
[67t] 5. Besides the ordinary form of the perfect נָסַב with Pathaḥ (in pause נָסָב) and the participle נָסָב with Qameṣ in the second syllable, there is also another with Ṣere, and a third with Ḥolem, e.g. perfect נָמֵס it melts, Ez 2112, 2215; נָסֵ֫בָּה (for נָסַבָּה) Ez 262; part. נָמֵס molten, 1 S 159, Na 211; נָקֵל it is a light thing, 2 K 2010, Is 496 (perf. נָקַל); with ō, e.g. נָגֹ֫לּוּ they are rolled together, Is 344; cf. 6319, 642, Am 311, Na 112, Ec 126b. In the imperfect with ō in the second syllable, on the analogy of verbs ע״וּ (from which König would also explain the perfects with ō), we find תִּדֹּ֫מִּי thou shalt be brought to silence, Jer 482 (unless this form should be referred to Qal with Qimḥi, Olshausen, König); יֵרוֹעַ he suffers hurt, Pr 1115, 1320; תֵּרוֹץ (for tirrōṣ) Ez 297; with ē in the second syllable תֵּחֵל she profanes herself, Lv 219, but וָֽאֵחַל Ez 2226, and יֵחָ֑ל Is 4811, יֵחַת Is 78, &c. For infinitives, cf. הִמֵּס to melt, ψ 683 (as inf. constr.; 2 S 1710 as inf. absol.); again, with compensatory lengthening in the first syllable, הֵחֵל Ez 209, 1422, but with suffix הֵֽחַלּוֹ Lv 214; also הִבּוֹז to be plundered, and הִבּוֹק to be emptied, Is 243; in the imperative, only הִבָּ֫רוּ be ye clean, Is 5211. On הֵרֹ֫מּוּ get you up, Nu 1710, and the corresponding imperf. יֵרֹ֫מּוּ Ez 1017, &c., cf. dd.
[67u] Examples of the perfect Niphʿal with sharpening of the initial syllable are, נִחַל it is profaned, Ez 2216, 253 (from חָלַל); נִחַר (from חָרַר) ψ 694, 1024 (also נָחַר Jer 629); נִחַת fractus est (from חָתַת) Mal 25; cf. with this in the participle, נֵֽחָמִים (for niḥḥāmîm) Is 575, and נֵֽאָרִים Mal 39: in the imperative and infinitive Niphʿal such a virtual strengthening of the guttural after preformatives never occurs.—The occurrence of u instead of ô as a separating vowel in the perfect נְשַׁדֻּ֫נוּ Mic 24 is abnormal.
[67v] 6. The second syllable in Hiphʿîl sometimes has Pathaḥ instead of Ṣere, especially under the influence of ר and the gutturals, e.g. perfect הֵמַר he made bitter, הֵשַׁח he bowed, הֵפַר he hath broken, Gn 1714, in pause, cf. §29q; otherwise הֵפֵר, plur. הֵפֵ֫רוּ Is 245. In הֵפִיר ψ 3310, Ez 1719, cf. ψ 8934, and in הֵשׂ֫ירוּ Ho 84 (perhaps also in יְחִיתַן Hab 217, but cf. §20n) there is an assimilation to the corresponding forms of verbs ע״וּ, see z. Also הֵצַר Dt 2852, הֵתַז (in pause) Is 185; inf. לְהָבַֽר to cleanse, Jer 411, in pause. But also with other consonants, e.g. הֵדַק 2 K 2315, הֵקַל Is 823; הֵרַךְ Jb 2316; plur. הֵסַ֫בּוּ 1 S 59,10 (and so usually in the 3rd plur. perf, except before ר and gutturals, e.g. הֵרֵ֫עוּ); imper. הָשַׁ֑ע besmear, Is 610; plur. הָשַׁ֑מּוּ be astonished, Jb 215; imperfect תָּרַ֫ע Thou dost afflict; part. מֵצַל (on ē in the first syllable, see under i) shadowing, Ez 313 (but מֵסִיךְ Ju 324 is assimilated to the form of verbs ע״וּ, unless, with Moore, we simply read מֵסֵךְ, or, with incorrect spelling, מֵסֵיךְ. So in the imperative הֲמִישֵׁ֫נִי Ju 1626 Qerê, and in the infinitive הֲתִֽמְךָ is 331).
[67w] The ē of the second syllable, when without the tone, may become ĕ, e.g. הֵ֫תֶל בִּי Gn 317 (see also x). It is unusual (cf. §53k) to find the ē written fully as in the infinitive לְהָפֵיר Zc 1110. Instead of Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ a Ḥaṭeph-Seghôl