Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/219
[72b] 2. As in the case of verbs ע״ע, the monosyllabic stem of verbs ע״וּ generally takes the vowel which would have been required in the second syllable of the ordinary strong form, or which belonged to the ground-form, since this is essentially characteristic of the verbal form (§43b; §67b). However, it is to be remarked: (a) that the vowel, short in itself, becomes of necessity long in an open syllable as well as in a tone-bearing closed ultima (except in Hophʿal, see d), e.g. 3rd sing. mast. perf. קָם, fem. קָ֫מָה, plur. קָ֫מוּ, but in a closed penultima קַ֫מְתָּ, &c.; (b) that in the forms as we now have them the lengthening of the original short vowel sometimes takes place irregularly. Cf. f.
[72c] Intransitive verbs middle e in the perfect Qal have the form מֵת he is dead; verbs middle o have the form אוֹר he shone, בּשׁ he was ashamed, מוֹב he was good. Cf. n–r.
[72d] 3. In the imperfect Qal, perfect Niphʿal, and throughout Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal the short vowel of the preformatives in an open syllable before the tone is changed into the corresponding tone-long vowel. In Qal and Niphʿal the original ă is the basis of the form and not the ĭ attenuated from ă (§67h; but cf. also h below, on יֵבוֹשׁ), hence יָקוּם, for yăqûm; נָקוֹם for năqôm; on the other hand, in the perfect Hiphʿîl הֵקִים for hĭqîm; participle מֵקִים (on the Ṣere cf. z); perfect Hophʿal הוּקַם for hŭqam.
[72e] A vowel thus lengthened before the tone is naturally changeable and becomes vocal Šewâ when the tone is moved forward, e.g. יְמִיתֶ֫נּוּ he will kill him; so also in the 3rd plur. imperfect Qal with Nûn paragogic; יְמוּת֫וּן (without Nûn יָמ֫וּתוּ). The wholly abnormal scriptio plena of ē in הַֽהֵימִיר Jer 211 (beside הֵמִיר in the same verse) should, with König, be emended to הֲיָמִיר; the incorrect repetition of the interrogative necessarily led to the pointing of the form as perfect instead of imperfect.—But in Hophʿal the û is retained throughout as an unchangeable vowel, when it has been introduced by an abnormal lengthening for the tone-long ō (as in the Hophʿal of verbs ע״ע).
- In Aramaic, however, always קָ֫מְתָּ; also in Hebrew grammars before Qimḥi קָ֫מְתָּ, קָ֫מְתִּי, &c., are found, but in our editions of the Bible this occurs only in pause, e.g. קָ֑מְתִּי Mi 78, מָ֫תְנוּ 2 K 73,4.
- According to Stade (Grammatik, §385e and f) the e in מֵת is of the nature of a diphthong (from ai, which arose from the union of the vowel ĭ, the sign of the intransitive, with the ă of the root), and likewise the o in אוֹר, &c. (from au). But ô (from au) could not, by §26p, remain in a closed penultima (בּ֫שְׁתָּ, &c.); consequently the o of these forms can only be tone-long, i.e. due to lengthening of an original ŭ, and similarly the ē of מֵת to lengthening of an original ĭ. This is confirmed by the fact that the ō in בּשְׁתְּ, בּ֫שְׁתִּי, בּ֫שְׁנוּ is always, and in בּ֫שׁוּ, 3rd plur. perfect, nearly always (the instances are 11 to 2), written defectively. Forms like בּ֫וֹשָׁה, בּ֫וֹשׁוּ, א֫וֹרוּ, &c., are therefore due to orthographic licence.