Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/220
[72f] 4. The cases of unusual vowel lengthening mentioned in b are: imperfect Qal יָקוּם (also in Arabic yăqûmu), but jussive with normal lengthening (§48g), יָקֹם, with retraction of the tone יָ֫קָם (yāqŏm), וַיָּ֫קָם (in pause וַיָּ֫קֹם); imperative קוּם, with normal lengthening of the ŭ in the 2nd plur. fem. קֹ֫מְנָה, since, according to §26p, the û cannot be retained in a closed penultima; infinitive construct קוּם. In Hiphʿîl the original ĭ is naturally lengthened to î (הֵקִים, imperfect יָקִים, jussive יָקִם, with retraction of the tone יָ֫קֶם, וַיָּ֫קֶם); on the transference of this î to the Hiphʿîl of the strong verb, cf. §53a.
[72g] The following forms require special consideration: the participle Qal קָם is to be traced to the ground-form with â unobscured, Arab. qâtĭl, §9q, and §50b. On this analogy the form would be qâĭm, which after absorption of the ĭ became קָם, owing to the predominating character of the â. The unchangeableness of the â (plur. קָמִים, constr. קָמֵי, &c.) favours this explanation.
[72h] In the imperfect Qal, besides the forms with original ŭ (now û) there are also forms with original ă. This ă was lengthened to ā, and then further obscured to ô; hence especially (יָבֹא) יָבוֹא, וַיָּבֹא, &c., from the perfect בָּא he has come. In the imperfects יֵאוֹר (but cf. וַתָּאֹ֫רְנָה 1 S 1427) and יֵבוֹשׁ from the intransitive perfects אוֹר, בּשׁ (see above, c), most probably also in יֵאֹ֫תוּ 2 K 129, נֵאוֹת Gn 3415 from an unused אות to consent, and perhaps in וַתֵּהֹם 1 S 45, &c., as in the cases noticed in §63e and especially §67n, the ē of the preformative is lengthened from ĭ (which is attenuated from original ă) and thus yĭ-băš became yĭ-bāš, and finally yē-bôš. Finally the Niph. נָקוֹם (nă-qām), imperfect יִקּוֹם from yiqqām, originally (§51m) yinqăm, arises in the same way from the obscuring of ā lengthened from ă.
[72i] 5. In the perfect Niphʿal and Hiphʿîl a וֹ is inserted before the afformatives beginning with a consonant in the 1st and 2nd persons, and ־ֶי regularly (but see Rem.) in the imperfect Qal, sometimes also in the imperfect Hiphʿîl (as in תְּבִיאֶ֫ינָה Lv 730, cf. תְּהִימֶ֫נַּה Mi 212), before the termination of נָה. As in verbs ע״ע (§67d and note) these separating vowels serve as an artificial opening of the preceding syllable, in order to preserve the long vowel; in the perfect Hiphʿîl, however, before the וֹ, instead of the î an ē is somewhat often found (as a normal lengthening of the original ĭ), especially after wāw con-
- So in Arabic, prop. qâʾĭm, since the two vowels are kept apart by the insertion of an א, cf. Aram. קָאֵם; but also contracted, as šâk, hâr, for šâʾĭk, &c. (cf. Wright’s Gramm. of the Arabic Language, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 164).
- וַֽהֲשֵֽׁיבֹתֶם 1 S 67 (cf. 2 Ch 625) could only be an orthographic licence for והשֵֽׁב׳; perhaps, however, והשִֽׁיב׳ was originally intended.