the ground-form qăṭâl.—Fem. אֲיֻמָּה, כְּבוּדָּה (glorious), עֲבֻתָּה, עֲנֻגָּה (delicate), עֲגֻלָּה, עֲמֻקָּה, with sharpening of the third radical, in order to keep the original ŭ short, and similarly in the plurals בְּרֻדִּים, נְקֻדִּים, עֲגֻלִּים, אֲסֻפִּים stores, &c.
[84ai] 6. The ground-form qĭṭâl develops to קֵטָל (cf. §93, Paradigm II, Rem. 1), e.g. לֵבָב heart, עֵנָב a bunch of grapes, שֵׁבָר strong drink; from a verb ל״ה, probably of this class is רֵעֶה, generally contracted to רֵע friend, ground-form riʿay: the full form is preserved in רֵעֵ֫הוּ his friend, for רֵעֵ֫יהוּ.
[84ak] 7. The ground-form qăṭâl in Hebrew always develops to the form קָטוֹל, the â becoming an obscure ô. The fact that this form is also written קָטֹל must not lead to the confusion of these forms with those mentioned in No. 5, from the ground-form qăṭâl. Moreover the qaṭôl-class includes forms of various origin, and therefore of various meaning, as (a) intransitive adjectives like גָּדוֹל great, קָדוֹשׁ holy, fem. גְּדוֹלָה, the short vowel becoming Šewâ, whereas in גָּדוֹל, &c., before the tone it is lengthened to ā; (b) the infinitives absolute of the form קָטוֹל (§45a) as representing the abstract idea of the verb, and abstract substantives like כָּבוֹד honour, שָׁלוֹם peace (Arab. sălâm); (c) substantives and adjectives in an active sense, as בָּחוֹן assayer (of metals,) עָשׁוֹק an oppressor, חָמוֹץ oppressing; in the feminine בָּֽגוֹדָה treacherous Jer 37,10, the irregular retention of the ā in the third syllable from the end is no doubt to be explained, with Brockelmann, from Aramaic influence, the punctuator having in mind the Aramaic nomen agentis qâṭôl.
[84al] 8. The ground-form qăṭîl develops to קָטִיל (cf. §93, Paradigm IV, a and b). Here also forms of various origin and meaning are to be distinguished: (a) adjectives used substantivally with a passive meaning to denote duration in a state, as אָסִיר a prisoner, מָשִׁיחַ an anointed one. These proper qăṭîl-forms are parallel to the purely passive qaṭûl-forms (see m), but others are due to a strengthening of original qaṭĭl-forms. These are either (b) intransitive in meaning, as צָעִיר small, and, from ל״י stems, נָקִי pure, עָנִי poor (see §93vv), or (c) active, as נָבִיא a speaker (prophet), פָּקִיד an overseer.—Of a different kind again (according to Do Lagarde, infinitives) are (d) forms like אָסִיף the ingathering, בָּצִיר vintage, חָרִישׁ ploughing time, קָצִיר harvest. On qăṭṭîl forms with a kindred meaning, cf. §84bf.
[84am] 9. The ground-form qăṭûl develops to קָטוּל. As in the qaṭâl and qaṭîl-forms (see k and l), so here forms of various kinds are to be distinguished: (a) qaṭûl-forms proper, with passive meaning, especially all the passive participles of Qal; fem. e.g. בְּתוּלָה virgin (properly secluded). On the other hand, by strengthening an original qaṭŭl-form we get (b) certain stative adjectives (§50f), as אָנוּשׁ incurable, עָצוּם strong, עָרוּם subtil, or even transitive, as אָחוּז holding; (c) active substantives, as יָקוּשׁ a fowler. Further, some of the forms mentioned in §84bg belong to this class; see above, the remark on l.
[84an] 10. The ground-form qĭṭâl or qŭṭâl in Hebrew changes the ĭ to vocal Šewâ,
- In Na 13 only the Qerê requires גְּדָל־ (in the constr. state) for the Kethîbh גְּדוֹל.
- On the fuʿâl-forms (regarded by Wellhausen as original diminutives) see Nöldeke, Beiträge (Strassb. 1904), p. 30 ff. He includes among them נְעֹ֫רֶת tow, and טְחֹרִים hemorrhoids.