Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/268

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Undoubted instances of masculines with (masculine) plural in ־וֹת are: אָב father, אוֹצָר treasure, בֹּאר and בּוֹר cistern, זָנָב tail, הֲלוֹם dream, כִּםֵּא throne, לֵב and לֵבָב heart, לוּחַ tablet, לַ֫יִל and לַ֫יְלָה night, מִזְבֵּחַ altar, מָקוֹם place, נֹאד skin-bottle, נֵר lamp, עוֹר skin, קוֹל voice, שֻׁלְחָן table, שֵׁם name, שׁוֹפָר trumpet.

 [87q]  Feminines ending in ־ָה which take in the plural the termination ־ִים are אֵלָה terebinth, אֵימָה terror (but also אֵימוֹת), דְּבֵלָה a cake of figs, חִטָּה wheat, לְבֵנָה a brick, מִלָּה (only in poetry) a word, סְאָה seā, a dry measure, שְׂעוֹרָה barley, and the following names of animals דְּבוֹרָה a bee and יוֹנָה a dove; also, for בֵּיצִים fem. eggs, a singular בֵּיצָה is to be assumed. אֲלֻמָּה sheaf and שָׁנָה year (see above, n) take both ־ִים and וֹת; cf. finally שִׁבֹּ֫לֶת an ear of corn, plur. שִׁבֳּלִים, and without the fem. termination in the singular פִּילֶ֫גֶשׁ concubine, plur. פִּֽילַגְשִׁים.

 [87r5. A strict distinction in gender between the two plural endings is found, in fact, only in adjectives and participles, e.g. טוֹבִים boni, טוֹבוֹת bonae, קֹֽטְלִים musc., קֹֽטְלוֹת fem. So also in substantives of the same stem, where there is an express distinction of sex, as בָּנִים filii, בָּנוֹת filiae; מְלָכִים reges, מְלָכוֹת reginae.

 [87s]  Rem. 1. In some few words there is added to the plural ending וֹת a second (masculine) plural termination (in the form of the constr. st. ־ֵי, cf. §89c), or a dual ending ־ַ֫ יִם, e.g. בָּמָה a high place, plur. בָּמוֹת, constr. st. בָּֽמוֹתֵי (also בָּֽמֳתֵי bāmothê, Is 1414, Jb 98, &c., sometimes as Qe to the Kethîbh במותי; see §95o); מֵרַאֲשֹׁתֵי שָׁאוּל from Saul’s head, 1 S 2612; חוֹמָה wall, plur. חוֹמוֹת moenia, whence dual חוֹמֹתַ֫יִם double walls. This double indication of the plural appears also in the connexion of suffixes with the plural ending וֹת (§91m).

 [87t]  2. Some nouns are only used in the singular (e.g. אָדָם man, and collectively men); a number of other nouns only in the plural, e.g. מְתִים men (the old sing. מְתוּ is only preserved in proper names, see §90o; in Eth. the sing. is mĕt, man); some of these have, moreover, a singular meaning (§124a), as פָּנִים face. In such cases, however, the same form can also express plurality, e.g. פָּנִים means also faces, Gn 407, Ez 16; cf. אֱלֹחִים God, and also gods (the sing. אֱלֹהַּ, a later formation from it, occurs only ten times, except in Job forty-one and in Daniel four times).

§88. Of the Dual.
Cf. the literature on the Semitic dual in Grünert, Die Begriffs-Präponderanz und die Duale a potiori im Altarab. (Wien, 1886), p. 21; Brockelmann, Grundriss, p. 455 ff.

 [88a1. The dual is a further indication of number, which originated in early times. In Hebrew, however, it is almost exclusively used to denote those objects which naturally occur in pairs (see e). The dual termination is never found in adjectives, verbs, or pronouns. In the noun it is indicated in both genders by the termination ־ַ֫ יִם