Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/348

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§110. The Imperative.
Mayer Lambert, ‘Sur la syntaxe de l’impératif en hébreu,’ in REJ. 1897, p. 106 ff.

 [110a1. The imperative,[1] which, according to § 46, is restricted to the 2nd pers. sing. and plur., and to positive commands, &c., may stand either alone, or in simple co-ordination (as in 1 K 1844, Is 561, 6518) with other imperatives:

(a) To express real commands, e.g. Gn 121 get thee out of thy country; or (like the jussive) mere admonitions (Ho 1012) and requests, 2 K 522, Is 53; on the addition of נָא see below, Rem. 1. The imperative is used in the sense of an ironical challenge (often including a threat) in 1 K 222 ask for him the kingdom also; 22:15, Ju 1014, Is 4712 (with נָא), Jer 721, Ez 2039, Am 44, Jb 383f., 40:10ff., La 421. The imperative has a concessive sense in Na 315 (though thou make thyself many, &c.), and in the cases discussed under f, e.g. Is 89 f., 29:9.

 [110b]  (b) To express permission, e.g. 2 S 1823 after previous dissuasion, (then) run (as far as I am concerned)! Is 2112, 4511.

 [110c]  (c) To express a distinct assurance (like our expression, thou shalt have it)[2] or promise, e.g. Is 6518 but be ye glad, &c. (i.e. ye will have continually occasion to be glad); and Is 3730, ψ 1102; in a threat, Jer 219. So especially in commands, the fulfilment of which is altogether out of the power of the person addressed, e.g. Is 5414 be far from anxiety (meaning, thou needst not fear any more); Gn 128, &c. (for other examples, such as 1 K 2212, 2 K 513, see below, f). Most clearly in the case of the imperative Niphʿal with a passive meaning, e.g. Gn 4216 וְאַתֶּם הֵאָֽסְרוּ and ye shall be bound; Dt 3250, Is 499 (Is 4522, see below, f).

 [110d]  Rem. 1. The particle נָא age! (§ 105) is frequently added to the imperative, as to the jussive, sometimes to soften down a command, or to make a request in a more courteous form (see above, a), Gn 1213, 242, sometimes to strengthen an exhortation uttered as a rebuke or threat (Nu 1626, 2010) or in ridicule (Is 4712).

 [110e]  2. The imperative after the desiderative particle לוּ Gn 2313 (at the end of verses 5 and 14 also read לוּ for לוֹ and join it to the following imperative) is due to an anacoluthon. Instead of the imperfect which would be expected here after לוּ, the more forcible imperative is used in a new sentence.

 [110f2. The imperative in logical dependence upon a preceding imperative, jussive (or cohortative), or an interrogative sentence, serves to

  1. On the close relation between the imperative and jussive (both in meaning and form), cf. § 46 and §48i.
  2. Like the threatening formulae in the Latin comic writers, e.g. vapula, Ter. Phorm. v. 6, 10=vapulare te iubeo, Plaut. Curc. vi. 4, 12.