Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/365

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 [113h2. Analogous to the use of the infinitive absolute as the accusative of the object, mentioned in d, is its employment as a casus adverbialis[1] in connexion with some form of the finite verb, to describe more particularly the manner or attendant circumstances (especially those of time and place) under which an action or state has taken place, or is taking place, or will take place; e.g. Jer 2219 he shall be buried with the burial of an ass, סָחוֹב וְהַשְׁלֵךְ a drawing and casting forth, i.e. being drawn and cast forth, &c.; Gn 2116 (הַרְחֵק a removing, i.e. distant; cf. Ex 337, Jos 316); Gn 3032, Ex 3036, Nu 65, 23, 15:35 (where a subject is added subsequently; see below, gg); Jos 317, 1 S 312 (הָחֵל וְכַלֵּה a beginning and ending, i.e. from beginning to end); 2 S 82, Is 711 (הַֽעֲמֵק and הַגְבֵּהַּ, prop. a making deep ..., and a making high, i.e. whether thy request extend to the world below or to the height above); 57:17 (הַסְתֵּר in hiding, sc. my face); Jer 315 (דֵּעָה וְהַשְׁכֵּיל with knowledge and understanding); Hb 313 (עָרוֹת, for the form cf. §75aa); Zc 73, ψ 3516 (חָרֹק, to define more precisely קָֽרְעוּ verse 15); Jb 153.[2]

 [113i]  Rem. 1. To an adverbial infinitive absolute of this kind, there may further be added a casus adverbialis (the accusative of state or circumstance), or even a circumstantial clause, to define more exactly the manner in which the action is performed, e.g. Is 202 and he did so הָלֹךְ עָרוֹם וְיָחֵף walking naked and barefoot, prop. in the condition of one naked, &c.; Is 3014 a breaking in pieces (acc. to the reading כָּתוֹת; the Masora requires כָּתוּת) without sparing.

 [113k]  2. A few infinitives of this kind, all of which are in Hipheîl, have, through frequent use, come to be treated by the language as simple adverbs; so especially הַרְבֵּה (cf. §75ff) multum faciendo, i.e. multum, very frequently strengthened by מְאֹד very and even used without connexion with a finite verb (see the Lexicon); also הֵיטֵב bene faciendo, i.e. bene, used especially to express the careful and thorough performance of an action (e.g. Dt 1315); in Dt 921, 278 it is added epexegetically to another adverbial infinitive absolute, in Jon 49 it twice precedes the verb for the sake of emphasis. Finally, הַשְׁכֵּם mane faciendo, i.e. early in the morning, then in general early with the additional idea of earnestness; in 1 S 1716 joined with the infinitive absolute וְהַֽעֲרֵב a denominative from עֶ֫רֶב evening (morning and evening, i.e. early and late), elsewhere (with the exception of Pr 2714) always joined with the infinitive absolute of the governing verb, e.g. Jer 117 for I earnestly protested (הַֽעִדֹ֫תִי) unto your fathers ... הַשֵׁכֵּם וְהָעֵד rising early and protesting, i.e. with earnest protestation; Jer 253, 265 (where וְ should be omitted before ה׳); Jer 2919, 3233, 2 Ch 1615.

  1. That this casus adverbialis also was originally regarded as an accusative, may be seen from classical Arabic, where an infinitive of this kind expressly retains the accusative ending. In Latin the ablative of the gerund corresponds in many ways to this use of the infinitive absolute.
  2. Also in 2 K 2113 for מָחָה וְהָפַךְ read with Stade and Klostermann מָחֹה וְהָפֹךְ; similarly, with Stade, וְקָשֹׁה in Ju 424; וְחָזוֹק in Jer 2314, and on Is 315 cf. t.