Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/379

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since, if the infinitive were used as a nomen regens, we should rather expect לְשׂוּם according to §102f. That the subject of the infinitive is regarded elsewhere also as nominative is again (see above, b) probable, since in such forms as הָנִיחַ Dt 2519, Is 143, הָמִיר ψ 463, &c., the pretonic Qameṣ is retained without exception, whereas on the analogy of הֲנִיחִי Ez 2413, הֲקִימוֹ Jer 2320, &c., we should expect הֲנִיחַ, הֲמִיר, &c., if the infinitive were regarded as a nomen regens. Or was the retention of the Qameṣ (assuming the thorough correctness of the Masoretic punctuation) rendered possible even before a following genitive, because that vowel was characteristic of the form? It is at all events certain that owing to the lack of case-endings,[1] a distinction between the genitival and nominatival constructions could not have been consciously made in the case of most infinitives, e.g. in unchangeable forms like קְטֹל, קוּם, &c.

 [115h3. When both a subject and an object are connected with the infinitive, the rule is, that the subject should immediately follow the infinitive, and then the object. The latter, in such a case, is necessarily in the accusative, but the subject (as in e) may be either in the genitive or in the nominative. The noun-suffixes again are, of course, to be regarded as genitives, e.g. Gn 3918 כַּֽהֲרִימִי קוֹלִי as I lifted up my voice (cf. 1 K 1321, and the examples, Gn 54, &c., enumerated above, under d), and so also substantives which follow a connective form, Dt 127, &c.; see above, d and f.

 [115i]  On the other hand, the subject appears necessarily to be in the nominative in such cases as Is 1015 כְּהָנִיף שֵׁ֫בֶט אֶת־מְרִימָיו as if a rod should shake them that lift it up (for the plur. מרימיו cf. §124k), not כַּֽהֲנִיף, as would be expected (see g above), if שֵׁ֫בֶט were in the genitive; cf. 2 S 1413, Jb 3317. And so probably also in other cases, as Gn 51, 1310, Jos 147, 1 K 134, 2 K 2310, Is 327. The subject is separated from the infinitive by an insertion (and consequently must necessarily be in the nominative; see g above), e.g. in Jer 211.

 [115k]  Rem. Less frequently the object is placed immediately after the infinitive, and then the nominative of the subject, as a subsequent complement, e.g. Is 201 בִּשְׁלֹחַ אֹתוֹ סַֽרְגוֹן when Sargon sent him; Gn 415, Jos 1411, 2 S 1829, Is 524, ψ 561, Pr 258. In Nu 2423 the subject follows an infinitive which has a noun-suffix in place of the object.

§116. The Participles.

Cf. Sellin (see above at the head of §113), p. 6 ff., and Kahan, p. 11 ff.

 [116a1. Like the two infinitives, the participles also occupy a middle place between the noun and the verb. In form they are simple nouns,

  1. In Arabic, where the case-endings leave no doubt as to the construction, it is equally possible to say either qatlu Zaidin (gen. of subj.) ʿAmran (acc.), literally Zaid’s killing ʿAmr, or qatlu ʿAmrin (gen. of obj.) Zaidun (nom. of subj.), or even el-qatlu (with article) Zaidun (nom. of subj.) ʿAmran (acc. of obj.).