Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/388
(unless, with Beer and others, we read וְאִם for וְאֶת־); also Ec 77 may be a quotation of an ancient maxim.
[117d] On the other hand אֵת occurs very seldom in prose before a noun actually or apparently undetermined. In 1 S 246 כָּנָף is more closely defined by means of the following relative clause; in 2 S 411 אִישׁ צַדִּיק refers to Ishbosheth (as if it were him, who was an innocent man); in 1 K 616 עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה refers to the particular twenty cubits. In Ex 2128 (otherwise in verse 29) perhaps the אֶת־ is used in order to avoid the combination שׁוֹר אִישׁ (as in Nu 219 to avoid the cacophony נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אִישׁ?); in Lv 78 and 20:10 the accusatives are at any rate defined by the centext.—In Nu 1615 אֶת־אַהַד מֵהֶם probably means even a single one (and then ipso facto a definite one) of them, as also in 1 S 93 אֶת־אַחַד מֵֽהַנְּעָרִים may refer to some definite one of the men-servants. In Gn 2130 we should read אֶת־שֶׁ֫בַע הַכְּבָשׂת with the Samaritan, since the seven lambs have been already mentioned; in Ex 21 translate with Meyer, Die Israeliten, p. 79, אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי the daughter of Levi; in Ex 289 read הַשֹּׁ֫הַם with the Samaritan; in Lv 2014 אֶת־אִשָּׁה is probably a scribal error due to וְאֶת־אִמָּה; in 1 S 2620 read נַפְשִׁי with the LXX for פַּרְעשׁ אֶחָד; in 2 S 524 read הַצְּעָדָה as in 1 Ch 1415; in 2 S 1516 the אֶת־ is incorrectly inserted from 20:3, where it refers to the women already mentioned; in 2 S 1818 read הַמַּצֶּ֫בֶת, or omit both אֶת־ and אֲשֶׁר with the LXX and Lucian; in 1 K 1231 omit אֶת־; in 2 K 2320 probably אֶת־עַצְמוֹתָם is to be read; in 2 K 259 the text is corrupt. In Ez 1632 אֶת־זָרִים might refer to the strangers in question; but see Smend on the passage.
[117e] 3. The pronominal object must be represented by את with a suffix (instead of a verbal suffix), when (a) it precedes the verb, e.g. Nu 2233 אֹֽתְכָה הָרַ֫גְתִּי וְאוֹתָהּ הֶֽחֱיֵ֫יתִי I had slain thee and saved her alive; Gn 71, Lv 2228, 1 S 87, Is 4322, 5711, Jer 417, 22, 7:19; (b) when a suffix is already attached to the verb, and as a rule when a second accusative with וְ follows, e.g. 2 S 1525 וְהִרְאַ֫נִי אֹתוֹ and he will show me it; Ex 173 לְהָמִית אֹתִי וְאֶת־בָּנַי to kill us and our children; Nu 1632, 1 S 511, 2 S 1416 (but cf. also Dt 116, 1516, &c., and Driver on 1 S 510); (c) after an infinitive absolute, see above §113a note; (d) after an infinitive construct, when it is immediately followed by the subject, e.g. Gn 4139, or when the combination of a suffix with the infinitive might lead to a misunderstanding, e.g. Gn 415 לְבִלְתִּי הַכּֽוֹת־אֹתוֹ lest one should smite him, &c., where לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹתוֹ might also mean lest he should smite.
[117f] 4. The pronominal object is very frequently omitted, when it can be easily supplied from the context; so especially the neuter accusative referring to something previously mentioned (the English it) after verba sentiendi (שָׁמַע) and dicendi, e.g. Gn 922, &c., וַיַּגֵּד and he told (it); also after נָתַן to give, Gn 187, 2441, &c., לָקַח to take, הֵבִיא to bring, שִׂים to lay, Gn 923, &c., מָצָא to find, Gn 3133, &c. A personal object is omitted, e.g. in Gn 1219, 2451 (after לָקַח.—The omission of the plural object is remarkable, because it leaves an opportunity for a misunderstanding, in Gn 3717 שָׁמַ֫עְתּי אֹֽמְרִים I heard them saying; perhaps, however, we should read שְׁמַעְתִּים with the Samaritan.
[117g] 5. In common formulae the substantival object is also sometimes omitted
- According to the ordinary rules of syntax (cf. §116t) we should translate, I heard men who said, &c.