Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/391

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of a noun derived from the same stem,[1] e.g. ψ 145 פָּֽחֲדוּ פַ֫חַד they feared a fear (i.e. they were in great fear), Pr 1527; also with the object preceding, e.g. La 18 חֵטְא חָֽטְאָה יְרוּשָׁלַ͏ִם Jerusalem hath sinned a sin; with a double accusative (see below, cc), e.g. 1 K 112, אִֽיעָצֵךְ נָא עֵצָה let me, I pray thee, give thee counsel; 1 K 112.[2]

 [117q]  Rem. (a) Strictly speaking the only cases of this kind are those in which the verbal idea is supplemented by means of an indeterminate substantive (see the examples above). Such a substantive, except in the case of the addition of the internal object to denominative verbs (see below), is, like the infinitive absolute, never altogether without force, but rather serves like it to strengthen the verbal idea. This strengthening is implied in the indeterminateness of the internal object, analogous to such exclamations as, this was a man![3] Hence it is intelligible that some intensifying attribute is very frequently (as in Greek usually) added to the internal object, e.g. Gn 2734 וַיִּצְעַק צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה עַד־מְאֹד he cried (with) an exceeding great and bitter cry; cf. the Greek νοσεῖν νόσον κακήν, ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην (Matt. 2:10); magnam pugnare pugnam, tutiorem vitam vivere, &c.

Examples of an internal object after the verb, and without further addition, are Ex 225, 2 S 1216, Is 2422, 352, 4217, Ez 2515), 26:15, 27:35, Mic 49, Zc 12, Pr 2126; with an intensifying attribute, Gn 2733, Ex 3231, Ju 158, 2 S 1336, 1 K 140 (cf. Jon 46, 1 Ch 299); Is 217, 4517, Jon 110, Zc 114, 82a, Dn 113; along with an object proper the internal object occurs with an attribute in Gn 1217, 2 S 1315; cf. also Is 146, Jon 41.—An internal object without an attribute before the verb: Is 2416, Jer 465, Hb 39, Jb 2712; with an attribute before the verb: Jer 1417, Zc 115 (cf. also Gn 308, Jer 2219, 3014, ψ 13922). Instead of the substantive which would naturally be expected, another of kindred meaning is used in Zc 82.

 [117r]  (b) Only in a wider sense can the schema etymologicum be made to include cases in which the denominative verb is used in connexion with the noun from which it is derived, e.g. Gn 111, 914, 113, 377, Ez 182, ψ 1446, probably also Mi 24, or where this substantive, made determinate in some way, follows its verb, e.g. Gn 3037, Nu 2511, 2 K 413, 1314, Is 4517, La 358,[4] and, determinate at least in sense, Jer 2216; or precedes it, as in 2 K 216, Is 812, 625, Zc 37; cf. also Ex 39. In both cases the substantive is used, without any special emphasis, merely for clearness or as a more convenient way of connecting the verb with other members of the sentence.

 [117s3. Verbs which denote speaking (crying out, weeping), or any external act, frequently take a direct accusative of the organ or means by which the action is performed. In this case, however, the accusative must be more closely determined by an attributive adjective or a noun in the genitive. This fact shows the close relation between these accusatives and the internal objects treated under p, which also,

  1. On a kindred use of the infinitive absolute as an internal object, see above, §113w.
  2. Cf. βουλὰς βουλεύειν, Iliad x. 147.
  3. The Arab grammarians assign to the indeterminate eases generally an intensive sense in many instances; hence the commentators on the Qorân usually explain such cases by adding and what ...! see §125b.
  4. Also in ψ 134 lest I sleep the sleep of death, הַמָּ֫וֶת is only used pregnantly for שְׁנַת הַמָּ֫וֶת (cf. Jer 5139), as צְדָקוֹת Is 3315 for דֶּ֫רֶךְ צְדָקוֹת. On the similar use of הֹלֵךְ תָּמִים in ψ 152, see §118n.