[118o] Those examples are especially instructive in which the adjective expressing a state, although referring to several, is nevertheless used in the singular, e.g. Jb 2410 עָרוֹם הִלְּכוּ naked, i.e. in the condition of one naked, they go about; cf. verse 7 and 12:17. In Is 204 the singular occurs after a plural object, and in Is 475 the masc. after the 2nd sing. fem. imperative, which clearly proves that the term expressing the state is not conceived as being in apposition, but as an indeclinable adverb.
[118p] (b) Participles, again either after the verb, Nu 1627, Jer 227, 432, ψ 73, Jb 245, Ct 28, or before it, Gn 4911, Is 5719, Ez 3635, ψ 562, 9214, Pr 2014; cf. also the substantival use of the participles Niphʿal נֽוֹרָאוֹת in a fearful manner (ψ 13914) and נִפְלָאוֹת in a wonderful manner, Jb 375, Dn 824.—Also participles in connexion with genitives, as מִתְהַלֵּךְ Gn 38 (cf. also בָּאָה 1 K 146), are to be regarded as expressing a state and not as being in apposition, since in the latter case they would have to take the article.—In 2 S 1320, 1 K 77 and Hb 210 the explicative Wāw (equivalent to and that too) is also prefixed to the participle. In ψ 694 for מְיַחֵל read מִיַּחֵל.—On 1 K 118, 2 K 106, 192, Hag 14, cf. the note on §131h.
[118q] (c) Substantives in the most varied relations: thus, as describing an external state, e.g. Mi 23 וְלֹא תֵֽלְכוּ רוֹמָה neither shall ye walk haughtily (as opposed to שְׁחוֹחַ Is 6014); Lv 69 (accus. before the verb=as unleavened cakes), Dt 29, 411, Ju 521, Is 572, Pr 710, Jb 3126, La 19; as stating the position of a disease, 1 K 1523 he was diseased אֶת־רַגְלָיו in his feet (2 Ch 1612 בְּרַגְלָיו), analogous to the cases discussed in §117ll and §121d (d); as describing a spiritual, mental, or moral state, e.g. Nu 3214, Jos 92 (פֶּה אֶחָד with one accord, 1 K 2213; cf. Ex 243, Zp 39), 1 S 1532, 2 S 233, Is 413 (unless שָׁלוֹם is adjectival, and the passage is to be explained as in n); Jer 317, Ho 1215, 145, ψ 563, 582, 753, Pr 319, Jb 169, La 19; Lv 1916, &c., in the expression הָלַךְ רָכִיל to go up and down as a tale-bearer; also בֶּ֫טַח unawares, Gn 3425, Ez 309; מֵֽישָׁרִים uprightly, ψ 582, 753 (in both places before the verb); as stating the age, e.g. 1 S 233 (if the text be right) יָמ֫וּתוּ אֲנָשִׁים they shall die as men, i.e. in the prime of life; cf. 1 S 218 (נַ֫עַר), Is 6520, and Gn 1516; as specifying a number more accurately, Dt 427, 1 S 1317, 2 K 52, Jer 318 [in Jer 1319 שְׁלוֹמִים wholly (?) is corrupt; read גָּלוּת שְׁלֵמָה with LXX for הָגְלָת שׁ׳]; as stating the consequence of the action, Lv 1518, &c.
[118r] The description of the external or internal state may follow, in poetry, in the form of a comparison with some well-known class, e.g. Is 218 וַיִּקְרָא אַרְיֵה and he cried as a lion; cf. ψ 2214, Is 2218 (כַּדּוּר like a ball); Is 2422, Zc 28, ψ 111 (unless צִפּוֹר be vocative); 58:9 b (unless the force of the preceding כְּ is carried on, as in ψ 904); ψ 14412, Jb 245 (פְּרָאִים, before the verb); 41:7 shut up together as with a close seal.
[118s] 6. To the expressions describing a state belong finally those nouns which are introduced by the comparative particle כְּ, since the כְּ is to
- Cf. above, §100c, on certain substantives which have completely become adverbs; and §113h and k on the adverbial use of the infinitive absolute.
- It is, as a matter of fact, permissible to speak of the above examples as comparatio decurtata, but it must not be assumed that the comparative particle כְּ, which is otherwise regularly prefixed (see s), has actually dropped out.
- On the use of כְּ as a prefix, cf. §102c.