Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/507
[152x] (k) לְבִלְתִּי that... not, with the imperfect, Ex 2020, 2 S 1414 (in Jer 2314 read the infinitive שׁוּב for שָׁ֫בוּ, in 27:8 יָבֹ֫אוּ for בֹּ֫אוּ). In Ez 133 בִּלְתִּי ירָאוּ is a relative clause governed by לְ= according to things which they have not seen.
[152y] 2. Two negatives in the same sentence do not neutralize each other (as in nonnulli, non nemo), but make the negation the more emphatic (like οὐκ οὐδείς, οὐκ οὐδαμῶς, nulli—non, nemo non); e.g. Zp 22 (if the text is correct) בְּטֶ֫רֶם לֹֽא־יָבוֹא before there shall (not) come. This especially applies to the compounds formed by the union of אֵין or בְּלִי with מִן־ without (§119y), e.g. Is 59 (6:11) מֵאֵין יוֹשֵׁב (for which in Jer 215 מִבְּלִי ישֵׁב), prop. without no inhabitant, i.e. so that no inhabitant is left there. On the other hand, in Is 502 מֵאֵין מַ֫יִם the מִן־ is causative, because there is no water; as also in Ex 1411 הֲמִבְּלִי אֵין־ is it because there were no...? 2 K 13, 6, 16. In Ec 311 מִבְּלִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא except that (yet so that man cannot, &c.).
[152z] 3. The negative sometimes extends its influence from the first to a second negative sentence parallel with it (which may or may not have Wāw) ; e.g. 1 S 23 talk not so much arrogancy; let (not) boasting come out of your mouth; Ex 2843, Lv 1912, 229, 15 f., Nu 1614, 2319, Dt 725, Is 234, 2827, 3818, 4714, Ez 1647, ψ 919, 135, 3519, 382, 4419, 756, Jb 2817 (so לָ֫מָּה לֹא why... not? in Jb 311 also affects the parallel clause).
The particles אַךְ, רַק only, serve to introduce restrictive clauses, and גַּם, אַף also, besides, even, intensive clauses. It is to be observed that the force of these particles does not necessarily affect the word which immediately follows (as is the case with אַךְ Gn 723, 3415; רַק Gn 65, Am 32; even הֲרַק אַךְ hath he indeed only? Nu 122; גַּם Gn 2734, Jb 711; אַף Dt 1517), but very frequently extends to the whole of the following sentence. Thus with אַךְ, e.g. Nu 149, 1 K 1713, Pr 1711, Jb 1315, 1422, 167, 236; רַק Gn 2011, 248, ψ 326, Pr 1310; גַּם Gn 2733, 3221 (גַּם הִנֵּה), 44:10; 1 S 227, 2820, Zc 911, Pr 1726, 2011; אַף Jb 143, 154.—In Mal 110 and Jb 210 גַּם is placed before two co-ordinate sentences, although, strictly speaking, it applies only to the second. Cf. the analogous examples in §150m.
- In 1 K 1021 אֵין־כֶּ֫סֶף goes with what precedes and must be emended, with the LXX and Lucian, to כִּי הַכֶּ֫סֶף.