Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/73

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laws for the formation of syllables. It occurs not only in the tone-syllable, but also in an open syllable before the tone, e.g. קֹדֶשׁ (ground-form qŭdš) sanctuary; בֹּרַךְ for burrakh, יִלְקֹטוּן ψ 10428, as well as (with Metheg) in the secondary tone-syllable; אֹֽהָלִים, פֹּֽעֲלוֹ. But the original ŏ (ŭ) is retained in a toneless closed syllable, whereas in a toneless open syllable it is weakened to Šeŵa. Cf. כֹּל all, but כָּל־ (kŏl), כֻּלָּם (kŭllām); יִקְטֹל, יִקְטָלְךָ and יִקְטְלוּ, where original ŭ is weakened to Šeŵa: yiqɩ̣̇e, Arab. yaqtŭlû. This tone-long ō is only as an exception written fully.

 [9s]  (4) ־ָ Qameṣ-ḥaṭuph represents ŏ (properly å̆, cf. §8a, note 2) modified from ŭ and is therefore classed here. It stands in the same relation to Ḥolem as the Segôl of the second class to Sere, כָּל־ kŏl, וַיָּ֫קָם wayyāqŏm. On the distinction between this and Qameṣ, see below, u.

 [9t11. The following table gives a summary of the gradation of the three vowel-classes according to the quantity of the vowels:—

First Class: A. Second Class: I and E. Third Class: U and O.
־ָ original â (Arabic ־ָא). ־ֵי ê, from original ay (ai).

־ִי or ־ִ long î.

וֹ ô, from original aw (au).

וֹ or ־ֹ ô obscured from â.

וֹ or ־ֻ û

־ָ tone-long ā (from original ă) chiefly in the tone-syllable but also just before it. ־ֵ tone-long ē (from ĭ generally in the tone-syllable but also just before it. ־ֹ tone-long ō (from original ŭ in the tone-syllable, otherwise in an open syllable.
־ֶ (as a modification of ă) sometimes a tone-long è, sometime ĕ

־ַ short ă

־ִ ĭ attenuated from ă; see h.

Utmost weakening to ־ֲ a, ־ֱ ĕ, ־ְ e.

־ֶ ĕ

־ִ short ĭ

Utmost weakening to ־ֲ a, ־ֱ ĕ, or ־ְ e.

־ָ ŏ, modified from ŭ

־ֻ short ŭ, especially in a sharpened syllable.

Utmost weakening to ־ֲ a, ־ֱ ĕ, ־ֳ o, or ־ְ e.

 [9u]  Rem. On the distinction between Qameṣ and Qameṣ-ḥaṭuph.[1]

According to §8a, long ā or ā̊ (Qameṣ) and short ŏ or å̆ (Qameṣ-ḥaṭuph) are in manuscripts and printed texts generally expressed by the same sign ( ָ ), e.g. קָם qām, כָּל־ kŏl. The beginner who does not yet know the grammatical

  1. These statements, in order to be fully understood, must be studied in connexion with the theory of syllables (§ 26) and Metheg (§16c–i).