Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/80

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§13. Dageš lene.
Ginsburg, Introd., p. 114 ff.: Dagesh and Raphe.

 [13a1. Dageš lene, the sign of hardening, is in ordinary printed texts placed only within the בְּגַדְכְּפַת letters (§6n) as a sign that they should be pronounced with their original hard sound (without aspiration), e.g. מֶלֶךְ mèlĕkh, but מַלְכּוֹ mal-kô; תָּפַר tāphár, but יִתְפֹּר yith-pōr; שָׁתָה šāthā, but יִשְׁתֶּה yiš-tè.

 [13b2. The cases in which a Dageš lene is to be inserted are stated in §21. It occurs almost exclusively at the beginning of words and syllables. In the middle of the word it can easily be distinguished from Dageš forte, since the latter always has a vowel before it, whereas Dageš lene never has; accordingly the Dageš in אַפִּי ʾappî, רַבִּים rabbîm must be forte, but in יִגְדַּל yigdal it is lene.

 [13c]  A variety of the Dageš lene is used in many manuscripts, as well as in Baer’s editions, though others (including Ginsburg in the first two cases, Introd., pp. 121, 130, 603, 662) reject it together with the Ḥaṭefs discussed in §10g. It is inserted in consonants other than the Begadkephath to call attention expressly to the beginning of a new syllable: (a) when the same consonant precedes in close connexion, e.g. בְּכָל־לִּבִּי ψ 92, where, owing to the Dageš, the coalescing of the two Lameds is avoided; (b) in cases like מַחְסִּי ψ 628 = maḥ-sî (not măḥa-sî); (c) according to some (including Baer; not in ed. Mant.) in לֹא in the combination לוֹ לֹּא Dt 325, or לֹא לּוֹ Hb 16, 26 &c. (so always also in Ginsburg’s text, except in Gn 389); see also §20e and g.—Delitzsch appropriately gives the name of Dageš orthophonicum to this variety of Dageš (Bibl. Kommentar, 1874, on ψ 9412); cf. moreover Delitzsch, Luth. Ztschr., 1863, p. 413; also his Complutensische Varianten zu dem Alttest. Texte, Lpz. 1878, p. 12.

 [13d3. When Dageš forte is placed in a Begadkephath, the strengthening necessarily excludes its aspiration, e.g. אַפִּי, from אַנְפִּי.

§14. Mappîq and Rāphè.

 [14a1. Mappîq, llke Dageš, also a point within the consonant, serves in the letters א ה ו י as a sign that they are to be regarded as full consonants and not as vowel letters. In most editions of the text it is only used in the consonantal ה at the end of words (since ה can never be a vowel letter in the middle of a word), e.g. גָּבַהּ gābháh (to be high), אַרְצָהּ ʾarṣāh (her land) which has a consonantal ending (shortened from -hā), different from אַ֫רְצָה ʾárṣā (to the earth) which has a vowel ending.

 [14b]  Rem. 1. Without doubt such a was distinctly aspirated like the Arabic at the end of a syllable. There are, however, cases in which this ה has lost its consonantal character (the Mappîq of course disappearing too), so that it remains only as a vowel letter; cf. §91e on the 3rd fem. sing.

 [14c] The name מַפִּיק means proferens, i.e. a sign which brings out the sound of the letter distinctly, as a consonant. The same sign was selected for this