a Begadkephath, בָּֽאֵלִם Ex 1511 (cf. however above, e); תֵּֽל־ Jos 828; בִּֽזְרוֹעַ ψ 7716; כֶּן־הִיא Jb 527.—It is doubtful whether we should include here those cases in which Dageš forte occurs after a word ending in a toneless û, such as ק֫וּמוּ צְּאוּ Gn 1914, Ex 1231; Ex 1215 (שְּׂאֹר), Dt 224; also לֹּא Gn 192, 1 S 819; לּוֹ Ju 1819, Est 613 (where P. Haupt regards the Dageš as due to the enclitic character of the לו); מְּעָט Ho 810; נֻּ֫דוּ Jer 4930; רְּדוּ 1 S 156. When we explained the Dageš in these examples not as conjunctive, but orthophonic (see above, §13c, and Delitzsch, Psalmen, 4th ed. on ψ 9412 a), we especially had in view those cases in which the consonant with Dageš has a Šewâ. The extension of the use of Dageš to consonants with a strong vowel, seems, however, to indicate that these are cases of the אָתֵי מֵֽרַחִיק, which was required by some Masoretes but not consistently inserted. On the other hand, the Dageš forte in י after a preceding î (ψ 1185, 18), and even after û (ψ 9412), is due to an attempt to preserve its consonantal power; see König, Lehrgeb., p. 54 b.
[20h] (b) When a consonant with Šewâ is strengthened by Dageš forte dirĭmens to make the Šewâ more audible. In almost all cases the strengthening or sharpening can be easily explained from the character of the particular consonant, which is almost always a sonant, sibilant, or the emphatic Qôph; cf. עִנְּבֵי Lv 255, Dt 3232 (for עִנְבֵי); כַּנְּלֽתְךָ Is 331 (where, however, כְּכַלּֽוֹתְךָ is to be read); cf. Na 317, Jb 918, 172, Jo 117 (with מ); Is 576 (with ל); Ju 2043, 1 S 16 (with ר); Gn 4910, 17 (and so always in עִקְּבֵי Ju 522, Ct 18 and עִקְּבוֹת ψ 7720, 8952); Ex 1517, Dt 2311, Ju 2032, 1 S 2810 (ק); Ex 23, Is 583, Am 521, ψ 1413, Pr 413 (צ); Pr 2725 (שׂ); Is 528, ψ 3715, Jer 5156, Neh 47 (שׁ). Also, with כ Ho 32; with ב Is 93, Jer 47; with ת 1 S 1011. In many instances of this kind the influence of the following consonant is also observable.
[20i] (c) When a vowel is to be made specially emphatic, generally in the principal pause, by a Dageš forte affectuosum in the following consonant. Thus in a following sonant, Ju 57 (חָדִ֑לּוּ), Jb 2921 (וְיִחֵ֑לּוּ), 22:12 (רָֽמּוּ); Ez 2719 (in נ); in ת Is 3312, 4117, Jer 5158, perhaps also Jb 2113 (יֵחַֽתּוּ).
[20k] (d) When the sonants ל, מ, נ are strengthened by Dageš fortz firmativum in the pronouns הֵ֫מָּה, הֵ֫נָּה, אֵ֫לֶּה, and in לָ֫מָּה why? cf. also בַּמֶּה, בַּמָּה whereby? כַּמָּה how much? (§102k, l), to give greater firmness to the preceding tone-vowel.
[20l] 3. Omission of the strengthening, or at least the loss of the Dageš forte occurs,
(a) almost always at the end of a word, since here a strengthened