had turned a deaf ear to a sugges- tion of abdication urged upon him by the European Consuls-General^ the Sultan, prompted by France and England, issued a firman de- posing Ismail, and nominating Tewfik Khedive. Ismail accord- ingly abdicated in favour of his son on June 26, and on July 1 he left Egypt. Having been unable to obtjun from the Porte permission to land at Constantinople, he took up his residence at Naples.
ISEAELS, Josef, a Dutch painter, bom at Groningen in 1824. He studied at Amsterdam, under Kruseman, and next at Paris, under Picot ; and received gold medals of honour at Paris, Brussels, and Rot- terdam. He also had conferred upon him the Belgian Order of Leopold, and was nominated a member of the French Le^on of Honour. His principal paintings are, "The Tranquil House" (in the possession of M. de Broucker, Brussels) ; " The Shipwrecked " and "The Cradle" (both in the possession of Mr. Arthur Lewis, London) ; " Interior of the Or- phans* Home at Katwyk;" "The True Support" (in the possession of the Count de Flandres) ; " The Mother " (in the possession of Mr. Forbes, London) j and "The Chil- dren of the Sea" (in the Queen of Holland's collection). In 1873 he exhibited at the French Gallery in PaU Mall, "Minding the Flock," thus adding another to that long list of pictures in which he has recorded the sadder aspects of humble life, whether in its affec- tions, its bereavements, or its labours. Mr. Israels has resided in Amsterdam for many years. His brother, Mr. Lehman Israels, bom at Groningen in 1833, went at an early age to the United States, where he acquired a considerable reputation as a journalist. He was for several years foreign editor of the New York World.
ISTBIA, The Princess Doba, d', the literary pseudonym of the
Princess Helen Ghika, one of the daughters of Prince Michael Ghika, and niece of Prince Gregory TV,, who was the first to spread among the people of WaUachiia the liberal institutions of civilisation. She was bom at Bucharest in 1829, and was married in 1849 to the Russian Prince Eoltzoff-Massalsky. Dis- . liking the absolutist system of Government in Russia, she quitted that country in 1855. She spent five years in Belgium and Switzer- land, carefully studying the cus- toms and laws, and, having made a tour through Greece, she went to Italy in 1861. At this period Gari- baldi addressed to her a letter, re- questing her to exert her influence over the Roumanians, to induce them to rise in rebellion against Austria. The Princess, who resides in Florence, is said to be thoroughly acquainted with the Italian, Ger^ man, French, Roumanian, Greek, Latin, Russian, and Albanian lan- guages, has written much on the essential and vital questions affect- ing the political and social future of the Greeks, the Albanians, and the Slavs of Northern Europe. She is an enthusiastic advocate of "Women's Bights," and an inde- fatigable champion of oppressed nationalities. Since 1850 die has been a contributor to the Revue des Deux Mondes, and she has written many articles in the French, Bel- gian, Greek, German, Italian, Eng- lish, and American journals. Among her works are: "La Yie Monas- tique dans I'^glise Orientale," Brussels, 1855; 2nd edit., Paris and Geneva, 1858 ; " La Suisse AUemande et TAscension du Mttnch," 4 vols., Paris and Geneva, 1856, translated into English and German; " Les Femmes en Orient," 2 vols., Zurich, 1858; "Excur- sions en Roum^lie et en Mor^," 2 vols., Zurich, 1863 ; " Des Pem- mes, par une Femme," 2 vols., Paris and Bmssels, 1865; "La Nazionalitk Albanese secondo i canti popolari," Cosenza, 1867;