Austrian Princess, Marie Louise. The next year a son, the King of Rome, was born to them. The alliance between France and Russia was broken in 1812, and Napoleon invaded Russia. The campaign ended in a frightful retreat, the army being practically destroyed. Napoleon hastened to Paris, and by the spring of 1813 had a new force in the field. After successful battles at Lützen, Bautzen, and Dresden, he was routed completely at Leipsic in October. The allies invaded France in January, 1814, and a three months' campaign compelled Paris to capitulate, and Napoleon to abdicate. The treaty with the allies gave the Emperor the island of Elbe for life, and hither he went at once, but in February, 1815, he left the island for France, and was greeted joyfully by the French army and nation. Louis XVIII. was obliged to fly from the country, and Napoleon was restored to the throne. The allies immediately attacked him, and at Waterloo, on June 18, 1815, he was defeated. He again resigned the throne, and on July 15 surrendered to the English, who sent him a captive to St. Helena, where he died on May 5, 1821. Napoleon was buried on the island, but in 1840 his remains were removed to France, and placed in the Invalides.
This page has been validated.