Page:Native Tribes of South-East Australia.djvu/93

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II
67
THE TRIBAL ORGANISATION

Two lesser tribes on the coast to the west of the Yerkla- mining speak a dialect of their language. Beyond are aliens only known to them by names, meaning "long nose" and "snake men."

The western shores of Spencer Gulf was occupied by the Parnkalla tribe, having class names and a local organisation similar to that described for the Dieri. On the opposite side of the gulf is Yorke Peninsula, which was wholly occupied by the Narrang-ga.[1] The tribal country is divided into four parts—Kurnara, meaning "north," being the northern part of the peninsula south of Wallaroo, Kadina, and Clinton. Windera, meaning "east," being the eastern part of the peninsula, between Kurnara and Dilpa, which latter is the extreme southern end of the peninsula. Wari, meaning "west," being the western part of the peninsula between Kurnara and Dilpa.

The distribution of this tribe into localities, the sum of which makes up the whole of the tribal country, is a feature in the organisation of some of the coast tribes. This will be more fully studied in the second part of the chapter, but it may be mentioned here, that in such cases the local divisions and those of the class organisation coincide, usually accompanied by a change of descent from the female to the male line.

As there is male descent in this tribe, the local divisions are clans, and taking Kurnara as an example, its area coincides with the class division Kari ("emu"), all of whose members belong to it. This is a remarkable innovation

  1. I must mention that when I first investigated the organisation of this tribe in 1880, my correspondent, the Rev. Julius Kühn, gave me the tribal name as "Turra," in which form it appeared in the joint work of the Rev. Lorimer Fison and myself. Subsequently, Mr. Sutton, the manager of the aboriginal station in Yorke Peninsula, in making further investigation, gave it to me as Adjadura, with the meaning of "belonging to men." In 1899 Mr. F. J. Gillen resided for a time at Moonta, and had opportunities for making further inquiries. I learn from him that the tribal name is Narrang-ga. He gives the translation of Adjadura as "my people." This is no doubt correct, and it may be that Mr. Sutton's informants used the term in that sense in speaking of their fellow tribesmen, but on the other hand the term as given by Mr. Sutton seems to be analogous to the name of the tribe on the opposite side of the Gulf of St. Vincent, namely the Narrinyeri, which means "belonging to men." I shall in future gladly adopt the name supplied for this tribe by Mr. Gillen.