# Page:Newton's Principia (1846).djvu/139

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Sec. V.]
133
of natural philosophy.

so (by Lem. XVII) pq $\times$ pr to ps $\times$ pt; and so (by supposition) PQ $\times$ PR to PS $\times$ PT. And because of the similar trapezia bkAf, PQAS, as bk to bf, so PQ to PS. Wherefore by dividing the terms of the preceding proportion by the correspondent terms of this, we shall have bn to bd as PR to PT. And therefore the equiangular trapezia Dnbd, DRPT, are similar, and consequently their diagonals Db, DP do coincide. Wherefore b falls in the intersection of the right lines AP, DP, and consequently coincides with the point P. And therefore the point P, wherever it is taken, falls to be in the assigned conic section.   Q.E.D.

Cor. Hence if three right lines PQ, PR, PS, are drawn from a common point P, to as many other right lines given in position, AB, CD, AC, each to each, in as many angles respectively given, and the rectangle PQ $\times$ PR under any two of the lines drawn be to the square of the third PS in a given ratio; the point P, from which the right lines are drawn, will be placed in a conic section that touches the lines AB, CD in A and C; and the contrary. For the position of the three right lines AB, CD, AC remaining the same, let the line BD approach to and coincide with the line AC; then let the line PT come likewise to coincide with the line PS; and the rectangle PS $\times$ PT will become PSĀ², and the right lines AB, CD, which before did cut the curve in the points A and B, C and D, can no longer cut, but only touch, the curve in those coinciding points.

SCHOLIUM.

In this Lemma, the name of conic section is to be understood in a large sense, comprehending as well the rectilinear section through the vertex of the cone, as the circular one parallel to the base. For if the point p happens to be in a right line, by which the points A and D, or C and B are joined, the conic section will be changed into two right lines, one of which is that right line upon which the point p falls, and the other is a right line that joins the other two of the four points. If the two opposite angles of the trapezium taken together are equal to two right angles, and if the four lines PQ, PR, PS, PT, are drawn to the sides thereof at right angles, or any other equal angles, and the rectangle PQ $\times$ PR under two of the lines drawn PQ and PR, is equal to the rectangle PS $\times$ PT under the other two PS and PT, the conic section will become a circle. And the same thing will happen if the four lines are drawn in any angles, and the rectangle PQ $\times$ PR, under one pair of the lines drawn, is to the rectangle PS $\times$ PT under the other pair as the rectangle under the sines of the angles S, T, in which the two last lines PS, PT are drawn to the rectangle under the sines of the angles Q, R, in which the first two