Page:Newton's Principia (1846).djvu/201

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Sec. XI.]
195
of natural philosophy.

between the bodies. Now these distances revolve about their common term with an equable angular motion, because lying in the same right line they never change their inclination to each other mutually. But right lines that are in a given ratio to each other, and revolve about their terms with an equal angular motion, describe upon planes, which either rest with those terms, or move with any motion not angular, figures entirely similar round those terms. Therefore the figures described by the revolution of these distances are similar.   Q.E.D.


PROPOSITION LVIII. THEOREM XXI.
If two bodies attract each other mutually with forces of any kind, and in the mean time revolve about the common centre of gravity; I say, that, by the same forces, there may be described round either body unmoved a figure similar and equal to the figures which the bodies so moving describe round each other mutually.

Let the bodies S and P revolve about their common centre of gravity C, proceeding from S to T, and from P to Q. From the given point s let

Principia1846-195.png

there be continually drawn sp, sq, equal and parallel to SP, TQ; and the curve pqv, which the point p describes in its revolution round the immovable point s, will be similar and equal to the curves which the bodies S and P describe about each other mutually; and therefore, by Theor. XX, similar to the curves ST and PQV which the same bodies describe about their common centre of gravity C; and that because the proportions of the lines SC, CP, and SP or sp, to each other, are given.

Case 1. The common centre of gravity C (by Cor. 4, of the Laws of Motion) is either at rest, or moves uniformly in a right line. Let us first suppose it at rest, and in s and p let there be placed two bodies, one immovable in s, the other movable in p, similar and equal to the bodies S and P. Then let the right lines PR and pr touch the curves PQ and pq in P and p, and produce CQ and sq to R and r. And because the figures CPRQ, sprq are similar, RQ will be to rq as CP to sp, and therefore in a given ratio. Hence if the force with which the body P is attracted towards the body S, and by consequence towards the intermediate point the centre C, were to the force with which the body p is attracted towards the centre s, in the same given ratio, these forces would in equal times attract