also the uniform motion of the common centre of gravity, and the motion of the space which moves along with this centre uniformly in a right line, and also the very first, or beginning motions of the bodies in respect of this space. Then (by Cor. 5. of the Laws, and the last Theorem) the subsequent motions will be performed in the same manner in that space, as if that space together with the common centre of gravity were at rest, and as if the bodies did not attract each other, but were attracted by a third body placed in that centre. The motion therefore in this movable space of each body going off from a given place, in a given direction, with a given velocity, and acted upon by a centripetal force tending to that centre, is to be determined by Prob. IX and XXVI, and at the same time will be obtained the motion of the other round the same centre. With this motion compound the uniform progressive motion of the entire system of the space and the bodies revolving in it, and there will be obtained the absolute motion of the bodies in immovable space. Q.E.I.
- Supposing forces with which bodies mutually attract each other to increase in a simple ratio of their distances from the centres; it is required to find the motions of several bodies among themselves.
Suppose the first two bodies T and L to have their common centre of gravity in D. These, by Cor. 1, Theor. XXI, will describe ellipses having their centres in D, the magnitudes of which ellipses are known by Prob. V.
Let now a third body S attract the two former T and L with the accelerative forces ST, SL, and let it be attracted again by them. The force ST (by Cor. 2, of the Laws of Motion) is resolved into the forces SD, DT; and the force SL into the forces SD and DL. Now the forces DT, DL, which are as their sum TL, and therefore as the accelerative forces with which the bodies T and L attract each other mutually, added to the forces of the bodies T and L, the first to the first, and the last to the last, compose forces proportional to the distances DT and DL as before, but only greater than those former forces: and therefore (by Cor. 1, Prop. X, and Cor. 1, and 8, Prop. IV) they will cause those bodies to describe ellipses as before, but with a swifter motion. The remaining accelerative forces SD and DL, by the motive forces SD T and SD L, which are as the bodies attracting those bodies equally and in the direction of the lines TI, LK parallel to DS, do not at all change their situations with respect to one another, but cause them equally to approach to the line IK; which must be imagined drawn through the middle of the body S, and perpendicular to the line DS. But that approach to the line