Page:Newton's Principia (1846).djvu/283

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Sec. II.]
277
of natural philosophy.

or by scale and compass, collect the lengths AK, Ak (by Rule 6). If the ratio of AK to Ak be the same with that of d to e, the length of AH was

Principia1846-277.png

rightly assumed. If not, take on the indefinite right line SM, the length SM equal to the assumed AH; and erect a perpendicular MN equal to the difference \scriptstyle \frac{AK}{Ak}-\frac{d}{e} of the ratios drawn into any given right line. By the like method, from several assumed lengths AH, you may find several points N; and draw through them all a regular curve NNXN, cutting the right line SMMM in X. Lastly, assume AH equal to the abscissa SX, and thence find again the length AK; and the lengths, which are to the assumed length AI, and this last AH, as the length AK known by experiment, to the length AK last found, will be the true lengths AI and AH, which were to be found. But these being given, there will be given also the resisting force of the medium in the place A, it being to the force of gravity as AH to 4/3AI. Let the density of the medium be increased by Rule 4, and if the resisting force just found be increased in the same ratio, it will become still more accurate.

Rule 8. The lengths AH, HX being found; let there be now required the position of the line AH, according to which a projectile thrown with that given velocity shall fall upon any point K. At the joints A and K, erect the lines AC, KF perpendicular to the horizon; whereof let AC be drawn downwards, and be equal to AI or ½HX. With the asymptotes AK, KF, describe an hyperbola, whose conjugate shall pass through the point C; and from the centre A, with the interval AH, describe a circle cutting that hyperbola in the point H; then the projectile thrown in the direction of the right line AH will fall upon the point K.   Q.E.I.   For the point H, because of the given length AH, must be somewhere in the circumference of the described circle. Draw CH meeting AK and KF in E and F; and because CH, MX are parallel, and AC, AI equal, AE will be equal to AM, and therefore also equal to KN. But CE is to AE as FH to KN, and therefore CE and FH are equal. Therefore the point H falls upon the hyperbolic curve described with the asymptotes AK, KF whose conjugate passes through the point C; and is therefore found in the