Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 16.djvu/390

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generic name Dinotherium, and excellent descriptions of the remains then known.

Count Münster's "Beiträge zur Petrifactenkunde," published 1843-'46, contained several valuable papers on fossil vertebrates; and the separate papers by the same author are of interest. Andreas "Wagner wrote on Pterosaurians in 1837, and later gave the first description of fossil mammals of the Tertiary of Greece, 1837-'40. Johannes Müller published an important illustrated work on the Zeuglodonts in 1849, and various notable memoirs; and Quenstedt interesting descriptions of fossil reptiles, as well as other papers of much value. Rütimeyer's suggestive memoirs are widely known.

Hermann von Meyer's contributions to vertebrate paleontology are by far the most important published in Germany during the period we are now considering. From 1830 his investigations on this subject were continuous for nearly forty years, and his various publications are all of value. His "Beiträge zur Petrifactenkunde," 1831-'33, contains a series of valuable memoirs. His "Palæologica," issued in 1832, includes a synopsis of the fossil vertebrates then known, with much original matter. His great work, "Zur Fauna der Vorwelt," 1845-'60, includes a series of monographs invaluable to the student of vertebrate paleontology. This work, as well as his other chief publications, was illustrated with admirable plates from his own drawings. Other memoirs by this author will be found in the "Palæontographica," of which he was one of the editors. In the many volumes of this publication, which began in 1851, and is still continued, will be found much to interest the investigator in any branch of paleontology.

The "Palæntographical Society of London," established in 1847, has also issued a series of volumes containing valuable memoirs in various branches of paleontology. These two publications together are a storehouse of knowledge in regard to extinct forms of animal and vegetable life.


It may be interesting here to note briefly the use of general terms in paleontology, as the gradual progress of the science was indicated to some extent in its terminology. At first, and for a long time, the name "fossil" was appropriately used for objects dug from the earth, both minerals and organic remains. The term "oryctology," having essentially the same meaning, was also used for this branch of study. For a long period, too, the termination ites (λίθος, a stone) was applied to fossils to distinguish them from the corresponding living forms; as, for instance, "ostracites", used by Pliny. At a later date the general name "figured stones" (lapides figurati) was extensively used; and, less frequently, "deluge-stones" (lapides diluviani). The term "organized fossils" was used to distinguish fossils from minerals when the real difference became known, although the name "reliquiæ" was sometimes employed. The term "petrifactions" (petrificata) was de-