THE TYNDALL TRUST FUND.
It may be recollected that, at the close of his lectures in this country, 1872-'73, Professor Tyndall left all the money he had received, except what was consumed in expenses, as a trust, the income of which was to be devoted to the assistance of American students in physics desirous of completing their studies in Germany. The fund was intended, of course, for those who were without sufficient means of their own for the purpose, and was to be only available for such students as had shown an inclination for original studies, and some aptitude and capacity in pursuing them. Trustees were appointed to take charge of the fund, which was at first so small that it was thought best to let it accumulate until the income became sufficient to give a moderate support to two students. The increase of the capital has now reached a point at which the income of the trust becomes applicable for its purpose.
The original trustees appointed by Professor Tyndall were Professor Joseph Henry, of Washington; General Hector Tyndale, of Philadelphia; and E. L. Youmans, of New York. The two former are dead, and President F. A. P. Barnard, of Columbia College, New York, and Professor Joseph Lovering, of Harvard University, Cambridge, have been appointed in their places. Applications for the benefit of the trust can be made to either of the trustees.
Studies from the Biological Laboratory OF Johns Hopkins University. Parts I, H, and IV, and Scientific Results of the Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory, Session of 1 878, forming Part HI. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co. 1880. Price, per Part, $1.00.
We can not too heartily congratulate Johns Hopkins University in being able to publish a work of such great value as the one before us. Its fame abroad will rest almost solely on these careful memoirs, which have doubtless found their way into the scientific libraries of the Old World, and in return for which the university must have gained many additions to its own shelves. Through the liberal recognition of the value of scientific work, the trustees of the university can lay claim to a publication having already reached four parts, numbering over five hundred pages, and illustrated by forty admirable plates.
The first part contains an elaborate paper on "The Normal Respiratory Movements of the Frog, and the Influence upon its Respiratory Center of Stimulation of the Optic Lobes," by Dr. H. Newell Martin, Professor of Biology in the University. Among the many contradictory accounts in regard to the mechanism of this process, Professor Martin says that the first detailed description by Townson in 1794 is essentially correct in all respects. After giving the conclusions of various authors, he details his own experiments, illustrated by diagrams. These consisted in carefully removing the central lobes and optic thalami, and, after observing the diagram made by the animal's respiratory movements, he stimulated the anterior cut ends of the optic lobes by a crystal of salt, and carefully noted the results. He found that irritation of the optic lobes diminished the irritability of the inspiratory center, and increased that of the expiratory center. In conclusion he points out that the results of chemical stimulation of the corpora quadrigemina in the mammal, as described by Ferrier, "correspond with the results of chemical stimulation of corresponding parts in the frog."
The next memoir, by Henry Sewell, B. Sc, is on "The Development and Regeneration of the Gastric Glandular Epithelium during Fœtal Life and after Birth." A prolonged study of the different cells in the glands of the adult stomach having failed to give the author such insight into their various functions as he desired, recourse was had to the stomachs of embryos; his material consisting mostly of embryo cats and dogs. He shows in summing up that "the stomach-glands are formed by ridge-like outgrowths from the surface of the mucous membrane. The hypoblastic cells, at first in a single layer, become several