346 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
The growth of this temporary council of war, in which the king, acting as general, summons to give their advice the leaders of his forces, into the permanent consultative body in which the king, in his capacity of ruler, presides over the deliberations of the same men on public affairs at large, is exemplified in various parts of the world. The consultative body is everywhere composed of minor chiefs, or heads of clans, or feudal lords, in whom the military and civil rule of local groups is habitually joined w^ith wide possessions ; and the exam- ples frequently exhibit this composition on both a small and a large scale both locally and generally. A rude and early form of the arrangement is shown in Africa. Among the Caffres " every chief chooses from among his most wealthy subjects five or six, w^ho act as counselors to him. . . . The great council of the king is composed of the chiefs of particular kraals." A Bechuana tribe " generally includes a number of towms or villages, each having its distinct head, under whom there are a number of subordinate chiefs," w^ho " all acknowl- edge the supremacy of the principal one. His power, though very great and in some instances despotic, is, nevertheless, controlled by the minor chiefs, w^ho, in their piclios or pitshos^ their parliament or j)ublic meetings, use the greatest plainness of speech in exposing w^hat they consider culpable or lax in his government." Of the Wanyam- w^ezi. Burton says that the Sultan is " surrounded by a council, varying from two to a score of chiefs and elders. . . . His authority is circum- scribed by a rude balance of power ; the chiefs around him can prob- ably bring as many warriors into the field as he can." Similarly in Ashantee. *' The caboceers and captains . . . claim to be heard on all questions relating to w^ar and foreign politics. Such matters are considered in a general assembly, and the king sometimes finds it pru- dent to yield to the views and ui'gent representations of the majority." From the ancient American states, too, instances may be cited. In Mexico " general assemblies w^ere presided over by the king every eighty days. They came to these meetings from all parts of the coun- try " ; and then we read further that the highest rank of nobility, the Teuctli, " took precedence of all others in the senate, both in the order of sitting and voting," showing what was the composition of the sen- ate. It w^as so, too, with the Central Americans of Vera Paz : " Though the supreme rule w^as exercised by a king, there were inferior lords as his coadjutors, who mostly w^ere titled lords and vassals ; they formed the royal council, . . . and joined the king in his palace as often as they were called upon." Turning to Europe, mention may first be made of ancient Poland. Originally formed of independent tribes, "each governed by its own hniaz, or judge, whom age or reputed wis- dom had raised to that dignity," and each led in war by a temporary voivod or captain, these tribes had, in the course of that compounding and recompounding which w^ars produced, differentiated into classes of nobles and serfs, over whom was an elected king. Of the organi-