Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 21.djvu/599

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583
ELECTRIC AND GAS ILLUMINATION.

manufacturing, the English report includes purifying, salaries, the wages for carbonizing, and wear and tear, which latter item has already been carried to the plant account. The first of these amounts to 1·82 cent; the second ·82 of a cent, and the third to 7·16 cents, making a total of 9·8 cents per 1,000 feet. This is probably much below the actual amount paid for these items in American works, but I am assured on excellent authority that, in works constructed after the best modern models, purification should cost the gas company nothing, and that all labor in the manufacturing department should be covered by an outlay equivalent to one man's wages ($2.50 per day) for each 40,000 feet of gas made per day. As the same amount of labor would have to be paid for each day in the year as on the days of greatest demand, this would amount, for a daily make of 1,000,000 feet, to 25 men whose wages at $65 per month (26 X 212) would be $19,500[1] a year, or 934 cents per 1,000 feet of the actual make. Including the cost of purification, and calling the amount 12 cents, we shall not be far wrong, or at least shall not exceed the actual outlay in the average works of this size. In the case of electricity the labor required at each station would be:

One chief-engineer $125 per month.
Three assistants (at $75) 225 "
Five firemen (at $60) 300 "
——
 Total $650

—— making $15,600 a year for the whole manufacturing plant, and 7·8 cents per 1,000 feet. To this may be added 115 cent to cover salary of electrician and incidental labor, bringing the item up to 9 cents.

There remains to be considered the cost of the coal in the case of gas, and the expense of running the engines in the case of electricity. The cost of coal per 1,000 feet of gas made was, in the case of the London companies, 3686100 cents, corresponding to $3.51 per ton, the make of gas being for this amount of coal 9,529 feet. This was offset by the sale of residuals, as below:

Coke and breeze 11·16 cents.
Tar and products 7·13 "
Ammonia and products 5·72 "
———
 Total 24·06 "

—— which leaves 12·8 cents as the net cost of the coal.

Compared with foreign companies, both in England and on the Continent, but very little is done with the residual products in this country, and the amounts received vary greatly between different works. Reliable data on this point can not be obtained, but under the most favorable conditions this item can not be taken as amounting to

  1. The engineer furnishing the information on which this statement is based informs me that this should be $12,500, or $2.50 per 40,000 feet of the actual yearly, instead of the maximum daily, make. This would reduce the item 934 cents to 614 cents per 1,000 feet.