Hazen, W. R. Report of the Chief Signal-Officer for 1886. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 500.
Goode, George Brown. The Fisheries and Fishing Industries of the United States. Vol. II. Geographical Review for 1880. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 787.
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Day, David T. Mineral Resources of the United States. Calendar Year 1886. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 813.
Bancroft Hubert Howe. History of the Pacific States of North America. Mexico. Vol VI. 1861 to 1887. San Francisco: The History Company. Pp. 760. $5.
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The Panama Canal. — At the meeting of the Academy of Sciences held in Paris, January 9, 1888, M. Ferdinand de Lesseps made a communication in relation to the proposed changes in the Panama Canal, of which the following account is taken from the "Journal des Débats": "What is now being done — and this will enable the largest vessels to pass from one ocean to the other in 1890 — is the ship-canal just as it was agreed upon by the International Congress, and just as it should be on the original line; only, instead of waiting until it shall be completely finished, in order to open it to navigation, we have simply decided to do again that which was considered best for the Suez Canal in 1865 — that is, at a time when formidable opposition, both political and financial, particularly financial, threatened to ruin the enterprise just as it was about to be finished. We have merely decided to open the canal to navigation as soon as possible when we shall be able to have ships as large as those of the Transatlantic Company pass from one ocean to the other, and a sufficient number of them to bring the annual traffic up to seven and a half million tons, as was predicted by the International Congress. This traffic assures us an annual revenue of one hundred and twenty million francs; it will enable us to settle all our indebtedness, and to pay a first dividend on the shares, and will still leave us something over. It is just as this surplus will increase that we shall complete the canal without any one feeling the expense, and without stopping the regular increase of the dividends, exactly as has been the case at Suez. But, in order to open the Panama Ship-Canal to the navigation of large vessels before it is finally completed, the problem is to hold the water in the parts of the canal not yet dug to the requisite depth in what engineers call upper basins ("biefs supérieurs"); to hold the water there, and at the same time allow ships to pass in and out of these basins, we shall have, to construct metallic doors as for locks, like those seen in all harbors where there is a rise and fall of the tide, and in ocean harbors. Mr. Eiffel, at my request, is to take charge of this work, for