Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 32.djvu/727

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LITERARY NOTICES.

showed himself capable of the heroic, with all the added charm of being unconscious about it. And amid all the anxious demands of professional emergencies, domestic affections of the tenderest were never absent from his mind. With him, all the powers of an acute, able Intellect were heightened and warmed by a fine emotional nature. The death of several children in a friend's family, through bad drainage, directed his sympathetic interest to the question of wholesome plumbing. As the result of his investigations, he became convinced of the necessity for thorough-going reform. In 1878 he accordingly established in Edinburgh the first sanitary association ever formed, and which has not only had many imitators in Great Britain and America, but done much to convince the public of the strict preventability of a large class of dangerous maladies. This volume has added interest, in that it is to some extent autobiographical of its author, Mr. Stevenson. He shows us incidentally and unwittingly how he has become so thoroughly grounded in his art. His imagination is supplied with clear impressions of actual men; in faithfully observing whom, nothing, however apparently trivial, is neglected. His discriminating judgment and quick sympathy are quite as evident as this faculty of keen observation. The way in which he unravels the skein of his friend's heredity is masterly.

The Education of Man. By Friedrich Froebel. Translated and annotated by W. N. Hailman, A. M. "International Education Series." Vol. V. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 332. Price, $1.50.

This work is one of the educational classics with which every teacher should be familiar. Although dealing with first principles, it is not a mass of untested theorizing, but comprises the reasons for the practical method which the experience of a great teacher proved to be successful in the school-room. Froebel's aim is that the pupil shall be educated by self-exertion, beginning with that activity which, while easy and attractive, leads him forward in a continuous development of his powers. In this volume, originally designed as the first of a series, we find the fundamental ideas of the system of methods and appliances to which, fourteen years later, the author gave the name "Kindergarten." The earlier portion of the work deals with general principles, and considers the development of man during infancy and boyhood, the most important doctrines being contained in the first two chapters. In the latter part the chief subjects of instruction are taken up in the four classes: religion, natural science and mathematics, language, art. This is followed by a discussion of the connection between school and family. The translator has inserted at many points biographical and other illustrative notes, and includes in his preface the essential parts of the interesting report on Froebel's Institute at Keilhau, made in 1825, by Superintendent Zech.

Animal Life in the Sea and on the Land. By Sarah Cooper. Illustrated. New York: Harper & Brothers. Pp. 413. Price, $1.25.

This very attractive book is designed as an introduction to the study of zoölogy for children. While accuracy and freshness have been aimed at in its pages, scientific terms have been avoided as much as possible. In classification, which has not been made prominent, the arrangement of Nicholson has been followed. In arrangement, the ascending scale is pursued, beginning with sponges and ending with man. Such animals as are most likely to interest young people have been selected to illustrate the several orders and classes. Of the study of animals, the author says, very properly, in her preface: "It is far more charming to gain this knowledge from the objects themselves than from merely reading about them in books; and it is therefore hoped that each subject which is treated in these pages will be studied from specimens actually in hand, whenever it is possible to obtain them." A very good substitute for unobtainable specimens is afforded by the abundant and clear illustrations.

Outlines of Natural Philosophy. For Schools and General Readers. By J. D. Everett. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 335. Price, $1.

This little volume, by the editor of that standard work, Deschanel's "Natural Philosophy," is designed to be easy enough for