visits the village in summer, many of the outlying huts will be hidden among the tall, rank weeds, and by the growing vegetables. In every village which I visited I was constantly being surprised at the guides taking me off by some narrow foot-path in a direction where I had not suspected there was a house, and always we would find one or more.
The Ainu huts possess no claims to consideration from an architect. Their light frames have just strength enough to carry the thatch and resist the ordinary winds that blow from the ocean, on the shore of which most of the Ainu villages are built. We will consider a large house in which will be domiciled a family consisting of father, mother, and several well-grown sons and daughters. In building such a habitation the quadrilateral roof is first made. The ridge-pole and plates will probably be roughly hewed sticks of considerable size, in one piece if possible, though jointed if necessary. The girders and rafters are round sticks, lashed together and to the ridge-pole and plates with withes. No nails or tree-nails are used. Strong tie-beams support the plates, and when the roof is raised to its place, will carry shelves for stores, clothing, implements, etc. The thatch of the roof is laid on in courses of about eighteen inches in length, conforming to the length of the tall reeds and arundinaria of which it is made.
Fig. 1. — Ainu Houses 
The ridge is usually thicker and stronger than the rest of the roof, and is lashed by seizings at short intervals; the ends of the ridge-pole often project slightly, and small openings are left at either end under the ridge, which serve as smoke-holes. The roof is closely laid, turns water well, and has sufficient pitch to cause the melted snow to run off freely. Its strength is quite remarkable,
- For the illustrations in this article we are indebted to "Unbeaten Tracks in Japan," by Isabella L. Bird. — Editor.