from the mountains of Wales, reaching eastward to Birmingham. But the two movements did not quite join. An unglaciated area was left between.
During all this time the Irish Sea was slowly filling up with the ice which was shed from the mountains of northern England, southwestern Scotland, and Ireland. This finally reached the obstruction presented by the mountains of Wales and divided—one branch of the ice-current going southwestward along the channel of the Irish Sea, and the other southeastward through the vale of Chester into the upper part of the Severn Valley. The bowlders transported by this movement are distributed down to a very definite line as marked in the map, and they overlie those from the Welsh mountains. It is in this area, containing bowlders from the lake district and southwestern Scotland, and in that covered with Scandinavian ice, that shells are found in the glacial deposits. Over the uncolored portion of the map and outside the limits of these two movements there is nothing to suggest a glacial or interglacial submergence. For a popular but full and comprehensive statement of the facts in the case the reader must consult Prof. Kendall's chapter in the volume from which we are permitted to copy this extremely interesting map.
By LOUIS ROBINSON.
IT is always interesting to trace the various habits and attributes of our domestic animals which form the bond of their association with us back to their natural origin. In doing so we can hardly fail to reach some suggestive inferences which bear upon our own early history as well as upon that of the animals we study.
Most of our dumb companions and helpers have become modified by changing circumstances since the partnership began even more than ourselves, and have become partakers with us of the advantages and disadvantages of our civilization. This is especially so in the case of the dog, man's closest associate and earliest ally. The many who happily respond to his affectionate and loyal service by regarding him as worthy of the consideration of a valued friend will, it is hoped, follow with pleasure a few thoughts here put forward which have arisen from a study of the habits that now characterize him as compared with those of his wild relatives.
We must remember that although the dog is now our friend, with interests in the main in harmony with ours, he was not al-