Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 5.djvu/614

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

of the kitchen. Some of these lake settlements, that near Robenhausen, in the Pfäffikonsee, for instance, were clearly destroyed by fire, and under their charred remains is buried every thing that had been contained in the eating-rooms. The lake-men, too, were hunters and fishers, and they still hunted some of the same animals as the cave-men—only the cave-bear, reindeer, and musk-ox had disappeared. They pursued fishing probably with greater success than their predecessors, for they not only employed harpoons made of bone and rein-deer horn, but had learned to make nets of flax-fibre. But they, furthermore, had begun to raise cattle; they had domesticated animals—goats, sheep, two species of swine, and two of oxen. Probably, too, they used the milk of cows, and even seem to have understood cheese-making, for twirling-sticks and perforated vessels have been found which can hardly have been used for any other process. The food-supply of the lake-men, therefore, was more assured than in the Ice Age, and also more varied; for they were, furthermore, agriculturists. They grew wheat and barley, ground the grain with querns, made porridge and bread. Remains of this porridge, as it is supposed, have been met with in pots; and flat cakes, in a charred condition, are found abundantly in the pile-dwellings of Wangen and Robenhausen. Sundry kinds of fruit, also, served for food. Dried apples and pears—wild-apples and wild-pears, it is true—blackberries, and hazel-nuts, have been taken in great numbers out of the bogs. The food of the pile-villagers was thus very abundant and diversified, and to this better nutrition answers a considerable advance in culture. The lake-man did not inhabit caverns, nor did he clothe himself in skins, as did the man of the Ice Age, but built himself wooden cabins, and wore clothes of flax. Considerable stores of flax have been found, and it is even supposed that pieces of the simple fabric have been discovered. These people lived in populous villages, and hence undoubtedly had a social organization. Their tools and weapons are of stone, it is true, but nicely polished and ornamented. Their unmistakable love of the beautiful testifies to their progress in culture.—Die Natur.

 
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MATERIALS OF THE SCIENCE OF LAW.[1]
By SHELDON AMOS, A. M.

IN order to ascertain what are the materials of the Science of Law, it will be well to cast a glance at the subject-matter, in its rudest and most inartificial shape, to which the science relates. For this purpose the case may be taken of a nation in what may be called the

  1. From advance sheets of "The Science of Law," forming Vol. X. of the "International Scientific Series."