best men." Such an ideal adjustment can not become speedily prevalent; but a few successful efforts "might be the germs of a s|)reading organization. Admission to them would be the goal of working-class ambition. They would tend continually to absorb the superior, leaving outside the inferior to work as wage-earners; and the first would slowly grow at the expense of the last. Obviously, too, the growth would become increasingly rapid; since the master-and-workman type could not withstand competition with-this co-operative type, so much more productive and costing so much less in superintendence."
For the present, Mr. Spencer sees the rhythmic principle exemplified in all evolutionary processes carrying us inevitably toward a régime of socialistic experimentation. Militantism is reviving in Europe and America. Equality is the ideal of the modern statesman, economist, and politician, rather than liberty. "There is small objection to coercion if all are equally coerced." This process can only be arrested by a great spread of co-operative production, which is not probable. Nations may perish, civilizations may decay, under this downward tendency. How long it will last and what will ultimately check it we can not now foresee. The processes of evolution will go on, however, gradually ultimating in that complete adaptation of human nature to the social state which is its ideal end and aim. This end will be proximated and preceded by a federation of nations whereby wars will be prevented and "the rebarbarization which is continually undoing civilization" will come to an end. Peace is the essential condition to that equilibrium between inner faculties and outer requirements, between man and society, which will constitute the final stage of human evolution. By a faith in eternal principles as constant and exalted as that of the religious saint, Mr. Spencer sees beyond the reversion implied in present downward tendencies the vision of man finally triumphant over false theories and the delusions of ignorance, at last completely fulfilling the demands of his higher nature in the organization of a society which may well be likened to the kingdom of heaven foretold by the founder of Christianity. May we not hope that the treaty of arbitration between Great Britain and the United States will constitute an initial step in the direction of this better day?
- The Out-of-door Library. Angling, pp. 305, $1.50. Hunting, pp. 337, $1.50. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.