by a distinct type of apparatus, but which has finally reached a point of development where it is possible for one of these machines to hoist a loaded coal car into position alongside a vessel, pour its contents into chutes communicating with the hold and return the empty car to the track in the elapsed time of one minute. In the case of the most approved styles of car-dumpers the loaded car is clamped to the track in a sort of cradle in such manner that it may be turned completely over and yet by means of a reciprocating movement on the part of a huge pan suspended in the framework of the machine and connected with the chute leading to the hold of the vessel, the coal is transferred with a minimum amount of breakage.
A class of coal-handling machinery in which recent years have witnessed great development is found in the various forms of chain elevators and link-belt machinery. This form of equipment is used extensively at railroad coaling stations designed to supply fuel to locomotives. In a representative installation one run of the upper conveyor is for stocking the coal and the other for distributing it into chutes, while the lower conveyor delivers coal from storage. Each conveyor is an endless chain interspersed with metal partitions forming pockets, is 600 feet in length and has a capacity of 120 tons of coal per hour. In many stations an inclined conveyor delivers coal from cars to a distributing conveyor and the latter apportions the fuel among twelve or more chutes. Conveyors of this same general type are