THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE.
��tlu> rain is clear for as scion as the moon is visible a tluuideistoi 111 ceases.' T\w seienee of the iiiilNcrsities was inuler tlie iloniination of tlic ' specida- tive physics ' of Ilegel and Scheliing, whose chemistry is fairly represented by such a quotation as " Water con- tains just the same as iron, but in ab- solute indifference as yoniU-r in relative indifference, carbon and nitrogen, and thus all true polarity of the earth is reduced to an original south and north wliich are fixed in the magnet." What Liebig accomplished will be better ap- preciated if the deplorable state of science in the German iiniversities is recalled.
Liebig was made professor of chem- istry at Giessen at the age of twenty- one, and full professor two years later. He immediately proceeded to establish a laboratory for students, the proto- type not only of chemical laboratories, but of the laboratory method in sci- ence. In 1852 he removed to Munich, where he died in 1873. Like many other men eminent in research, Liebig was a gi-eat teacher, an editor and a popularizer of science. He also com- bined the discovery of facts with the formulation of wide-reaching theories. Neither the facts nor the theories can be described here; it suffices to say that Liebig may properly be regarded as the founder of organic, physiological and agricultural chemistry.
THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NAT- URAL HISTORY. The thirty-fourth annual report (that for 1902) of the American Mu- seum of Natural History in Xew York City records the events of a prosperous year for the institution. During the year the membership increased ma- terially, and the attendance on lec- tures was larger than ever before. Several scientific societies held their regular meetings in the building. In October, 1902, the International Con- gress of Americanists held its thir- teenth annual session at the museum,
��and discussed subjects I'elating to ' The Native Races of .America ' and ' The History of the Early Contact between America and the Did World.'
In May 1902, upon the aiiivul of the news of the disaster in Marti- nique, Dr. Hovej', of tlie Geological Department, was detailed by the president to investigate the causes of the eruptions, and his work has placed the museum among the leading con- tributors to seismology.
The additions to the collections of mammals during the year numbered more than 2,000, secured largely through the museum collectors. The gift of the Peary Arctic Club of about one hundred mammals, collected by Commander Peary on his last Arctic expedition, is especially noteworthy. The museum is now the richest in the world in mammals from Arctic Amer- ica. The donations from the New York Zoological Society and the Cen- tral Park Menagerie are of great value to the museum. The specimens of mammals obtained by the Andrew J. Stone Expedition in North British Columbia form the largest single col- lection that has ever been brought down from the north. In the Ba- hamas and Virginia material was col- lected for special bird groups for the museum. The vertebrate paleontolog- ical collections of the museum were enriched by expeditions maintained in the field, and the establishment of a fund by a member of the board of trustees for providing material to il- lustrate the origin and development of the horse produced immediate re- sults of the highest importance. The Cope collections, the purchase of which was effected in the year, include fossil reptiles, amphibians and fishes, and the Pampean collection of fossil mam- mals from South America.
A nixmber of archeological collections not before exhibited were installed, notably the valuable collections made in the southwest under grants fur- nished by the Messrs. Hyde. Through