Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 64.djvu/65

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61
HERTZIAN WAVE WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY.

each receiver responded only to its particular transmitter and not to the other.

With arrangements of substantially the same nature, he made experiments in the autumn of 1900 between Niton, in the Isle of Wight, near Bournemouth, a distance of about thirty miles, in which independent messages were sent and received on the same aerial.

Dr. Slaby and Count von Arco, working in Germany, have followed very much on the same lines as Mr. Marconi, though with appliances of a somewhat different nature. As constructed by the General Electric Company, of Berlin, the Slaby-Arco syntonic system of Hertzian telegraphy is arranged in one form as follows: The transmitter consists of a vertical rod like a lightning conductor, say 100 or 150 feet in height. At a point six or nine feet above the ground, a connection is

 

PSM V64 D065 Slaby arco syntonic transmitter and receiver.png

Fig. 24. Slaby-Arco Syntonic Transmitter and Receiver. I, induction coil; M, multiplier; B, battery; A, aerial; F, filings tube; R, relay; E, earthplate; C, condenser.

 

made to a spark ball (see Fig. 24), and the corresponding ball is connected through a variable inductance with one terminal of a condenser, the other terminal of which is connected to the earth. The two spark balls are connected to an induction coil, or alternating current transformer, and by variation of the inductance and capacity the frequency is so arranged that the wave-length corresponding to it is equal to four times the length of that portion of the aerial which is above the spark ball connection. The method by which this tuning is achieved is to insert in the portion of the aerial below the spark balls, between it and the earth, a hot wire ammeter of some form. It has already been shown that in the case of such an earthed aerial, when electrical oscillations are set up in it, there is a potential node at the earth and a potential antinode or loop at the summit, if it is vibrating in its fundamental manner; also, there is a node of current at the summit of the aerial and an antinode at the base. This amounts to saying that the amplitude of the potential vibrations is greatest at the top end of the aerial, and the amplitude of the current vibrations is greatest at the bottom or earthed end. Accordingly, the inductance and capacity of the lateral branch of the transmitter is altered until the hot wire ammeter in the base of the aerial shows the largest possible current.

The corresponding receiver is constructed in a very similar manner.