534 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY
inheritance, conveyance and contract. Thus the political life of the Igorot, although exceedingly weak on the side of federation or agree- ment between the independent towns, is centuries of development ahead of the almost institutionless communities of the Ilongot.
The Ilongot appears to be usually a monogamist and the wife is purchased, or at least a dowry called " piyat " is paid in weapons, utensils, liquor, wire, etc. Her position is not at all that of a bought piece of property, but, like the woman in Malayan society generally, she is the companion and almost the equal in influence and independence of the man.
While the machinery for righting injuries or settling grievances is almost non-existent, the Ilongot has a strong sense of injury and of wrongful acts. He will say with the strongest feeling and disgust that certain actions are " forbidden " (ma kxil).
I once asked an Ilongot what he would do if a man of a neighboring community, with which relations were peaceful, should come and steal his pig. He thereupon detailed the steps open to him. He might take his weapons and go within hallooing distance of the aggressor's home and demand a double fine or restitution ("baiyad"). If the demand did not avail he would make a solemn warning (" tongtongan ") and then, if satisfaction did not follow, there was no recourse but retaliation. I believe, however, that compensation, even for such offenses as murder, is frequently arranged through the anxiety of all members of the family to escape retaliation. Feud, that inevitably arises under such social conditions as these, pursues generation after generation and the obliga- tion that descends to posterity and relations to take vengeance is spoken of as the " debt of life " (utang nu biay).
Apart from the taking of heads as an act of vengeance, murder with the winning of the gruesome trophy is obligatory on" the other occa- sions as well. An Ilongot once said to me "A man may during his life take three, four or even five heads, but he must take one, and that before he marries. This head he carries to the relations of his intended wife to prove that his heart and body are strong to defend her." Fur- thermore, after the palay harvest each year the bundles of unthreshed rice or palay are neatly piled into a stack about a tall stake which is set up in the " kaingin." Then, for some ungodly reason, a human head is very desirable to place on top of this pole. So raids are made, usually on the Christian settlements below. Several questions may be asked regarding these practises, but I can offer nothing by way of answer. To whom is the "debt of life" owed? To the spirit of the dead person? To the customary Malayan spirits of the forest? Only a Ion? acquaintance would enable one to get to the bottom of the motive of such customs as these.
The primitive Malayan is full of beliefs and dreads of the malignant spirits which throng his environment. These are the spirits of forest,