Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/123

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282. a. The construction of a passive verb (or participle) with an instrumental of the agent is common from the earliest period, and becomes decidedly more so later, the passive participle with instrumental taking to no small extent the place of an active verb with its subject. Thus, yaména dattáḥ (RV.) given by Yama; ṛ́ṣibhir ī́ḍyaḥ (RV.) to be praised by sages; vyādhena jālaṁ vistīrṇam (H.) by the hunter a net [was] spread; tac chrutvā jaradgaveno ’ktam (H.) Jaradgava, hearing this, said; mayā gantavyam (H.) I shall go. A predicate to the instrumental subject of such a construction is, of course, also in the instrumental: thus, adhunā tavā ’nucareṇa mayā sarvathā bhavitavyam (H.) henceforth I shall always by thy companion; avahitāir bhavitavyam bhavadbhiḥ (Vikr.) you must be attentive.

b. A causative verb sometimes takes an instrumental instead of an accusative as second object: thus, tāṁ çvabhiḥ khādayed rājā (M.) the king should have her devoured by dogs; tā́ váruṇenā ’grāhayat (MS.) he caused Varuṇa to seize them.

283. Many instrumental constructions are such as call in translation for other prepositions than with or by; yet the true instrumental relation is usually to be traced, especially if the etymological sense of the words be carefully considered.

a. More anomalously, however, the instrumental is used interchangeably with the ablative with words signifying separation: thus, vatsāír víyutāḥ (RV.) separated from their calves; mā́ ’hám ātmánā ví rādhiṣi (AV.) let me not be severed from the breath of life; sa tayā vyayujyata (MBh.) he was parted from her; pāpmánāi ’vāí ’naṁ ví punanti (MS.) they cleanse him from evil (compare English parted with). The same meaning may be given to the case even when accompanied by saha with: thus, bhartrā saha viyogaḥ (MBh.) separation from her husband.

284. The prepositions taking the instrumental (1127) are those signifying with and the like: thus, saha, with the adverbial words containing sa as an element, as sākam, sārdham, saratham;—and, in general, a word compounded with sa, sam, saha takes an instrumental as its regular and natural complement. But also the preposition vinā without takes sometimes the instrumental (cf. 283 a).

285. Uses of the Dative. The dative is the case of the indirect object—or that toward or in the direction of or in order to or for which anything is or is done (either intransitively or to a direct object).

a. In more physical connections, the uses of the dative approach those of the accusative (the more proper to-case), and the two are sometimes interchangeable; but the general value of the dative as the toward- or for-case is almost everywhere distinctly to be traced.

286. Thus, the dative is used with—

a. Words signifying give, share out, assign, and the like: thus, yó ná dádāti sákhye (RV.) who gives not to a friend; yácchā ’smāi çárma (RV.) bestow upon him protection.