Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/174

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390. Monosyllabic stems have the regular accent of such, throwing the tone forward upon the endings in the weak cases.

a. But the accusative plural has its normal accentuation as a weak case, upon the ending, in only a minority (hardly more than a third) of the stems: namely in datás, pathás, padás, nidás, apás, uṣás, jñāsás, puṁsás, māsás, mahás; and sometimes in vācás, srucás, hrutás, sridhás, kṣapás, vipás, durás, iṣás, dviṣás, druhás (beside vā́cas etc.).

b. Exceptional instances, in which a weak case has the tone on the stem, occur as follows: sádā, nádbhyas, tánā (also tanā́) and táne, bā́dhe (infln.), ráṇe and ráṅsu, váṅsu, sváni, vípas, kṣámi, sū́rā and sū́ras (but sūré), áṅhas, and vánas and bṛ́has (in vánaspáti, bṛ́haspáti). On the other hand, a strong case is accented on the ending in mahás, nom. pl., and kāsám (AV.: perhaps a false reading). And preṣā́, instr. sing., is accented as if préṣ were a simple stem, instead of pra-íṣ. Vimṛdháḥ is of doubtful character. For the sometimes anomalous accentuation of stems in ac or añc, see 410.

391. Examples of inflection. As an example of normal monosyllabic inflection, we may take the stem वाच् vā́c f. voice (from √वच् vac, with constant prolongation); of inflection with strong and weak stem, पद् pád m. foot; of polysyllabic inflection, मरुत् marút, m. wind or wind-god; of a monosyllabic root-stem in composition, त्रिवृत् trivṛ́t, three-fold, in the neuter. Thus:

Singular:
N. V. वाक्
vā́k
पात्
pā́t
मरुत्
marút
त्रिवृत्
trivṛ́t
A. वाचम्
vā́cam
पादम्
pā́dam
मरुतम्
marútam
त्रिवृत्
trivṛ́t
I. वाचा
vācā́
पदा
padā́
मरुता
marútā
त्रिवृता
trivṛ́tā
D. वाचे
vācé
पदे
padé
मरुते
marúte
त्रिवृते
trivṛ́te
Ab. G. वाचस्
vācás
पदस्
padás
मरुतस्
marútas
त्रिवृतस्
trivṛ́tas
L. वाचि
vācí
पदि
padí
मरुति
marúti
त्रिवृति
trivṛ́ti